Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
|7 chapter -- 71 verses|
While the suitors retire to their respective camps Aja conducts Indumati into the decorated and festive city. The marriage festivities having been concluded the disappointed suitors say farewell with pleasant and cheerful faces, but with envy and irritation lurking in their hearts. In a body they lie in ambush on the road by which Aja must travel with his young bride. On his approach they fall on him but are signally rlefeated in the fight that ensues. Aja uses the magic weapon given by the demi-god Priyamvada to benumb his adversaries, and leaving them in a helpless plight safely returns to his capital. Aja and the new bride are welcomed by Raghu who now resigns the kingdom in his son's favour.
Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 7th canto is made available here 1.35 MB pdf for further reading.
अथोपयन्त्रा सदृशेण युक्ताम् स्कन्देन साक्षादिव देवसेनाम्।
स्वसारमादाय विदर्भनाथः पुरप्रवेशाभिमुखो बभूव॥ ७-१
athopayantrā sadṛśeṇa yuktām
skandena sākṣādiva devasenām |
purapraveśābhimukho babhūva || 7-1
athopayantraa sadR^isheNa yuktaam
skandena saakShaadiva devasenaam |
purapraveshaabhimukho babhuuva || 7-1
atha upayantraa sadR^isheNa yuktaam skandena saakShaat iva devasenaam svasaaram aadaaya vidarbha naathaH pura pravesha abhimukho babhuuva
7-1. atha= now, i.e., after the marriage-garland was put on Aja's neck as mentioned in VI. 83; vidarbha naathaH= Vidarbha's, king - Bhoja, sadR^isheNa= befitting, suitable; upayantraa= Instru. sing. of upayantu - a husband; yuktaam= she who is along with - such a husband - namely Indumati, who is further like; saakShaat skandena [yuktaam] devasenaam iva= exactly, with Kumara [united with], lady devasena, as if - looked as if like Lady devasena herself in person when united with Skanda; svasaaram aadaaya = [such a] sister, on taking; pura pravesha abhimukhaH babhuuva= city, to enter, readied himself, he became.
Now, Bhoja, the lord of Vidarbha, taking his sister Lady Indumati, which lady by now is united with a worthy bridegroom and therefore looked like Lady Devasena herself in person when united with Skanda, and directed his course towards the entrance of his city, from the hall of bridegroom selection, svayamvara maNTapam, built away from city. [7-1]
upmAna: Devasena; upameya: Indumati; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : upayantraa yuktaam; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva; biMba: upayantraa yuktaam; pratibiMba: skandena yuktaam; ubhayAnvayi : sadR^ishena; hence, anugAmitva - shleSha - bimbapratibiMba mishraNa.
भोज्याम् प्रति व्यर्थमनोरथत्वाद्रूपेषु वेशेषु च साभ्यसूया॥ ७-२
bhojyām prati vyarthamanorathat
vādrūpeṣu veśeṣu ca sābhyasūyā || 7-2
bhojyaam prati vyarthamanorathat
vaadruupeShu vesheShu ca saabhyasuuyaa || 7-2
senaa niveshaan pR^ithivii-kShitaH api jagmuH vibhaata graha manda bhaasaH bhojyaa.n prati vyartha manorathatvaat ruupeShu vesheShu ca saabhyasuuyaa
7-2. bhojyaan prati= sister of King Bhoja of Vidarbha, lady Indumati, in the matter of [gaining] her; vyartha manorathatvaat= their hopes having proved futile; ruupeShu vesheShu ca= regarding their personal beauty, their apparel; saabhyasuuyaaH= finding fault - deeming their getups and charm rendered them otiose; like; vibhaata graha manda bhaasaH = morning-time, stars, bedimmed, lustre - like stars with dimmed brightness in early dawn; pR^ithivii-kShitaH api= kings, too; senaa niveshaan jagmuH = to their military camps, they went.
As with lacklustre dawn-time stars, the suitor-kings with dimmed down lustre returned to their encampments, chagrined at their own personal beauty and apparel that have shattered their hopes of wooing Lady Indumati, the princess of Bhoja. [7-2]
upmAna: vibhaata graha; upameya: pR^ithivii-kShitaH; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : manda bhaasaH; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva - lupta vAchaka; samAsagata vAchaka lutopama.[3-2]
सांनिध्ययोगात्किल तत्र शच्याः स्वयंवरक्षोभकृतामभावः।
काकुत्स्थमुद्दिश्य समत्सरोऽपि शशाम तेन क्षितिपाललोकः॥ ७-३
sāṁnidhyayogātkila tatra śacyāḥ
śaśāma tena kṣitipālalokaḥ || 7-3
saa.nnidhyayogaatkila tatra shacyaaH
shashaama tena kShitipaalalokaH || 7-3
saa.nnidhya yogaat kila tatra shacyaaH svaya.m vara kShobha kR^itaam abhaavaH kaakutstham uddishya sa-matsaraH api shashaama tena kShiti-paala-lokaH
7-3. tatra= at that place, in bridegroom choosing hall; shacyaaH= Lady Shachi, the wife of Indra, is invoked along with her husband at the commencement of the ceremonials of Hindu marriages. She is said to' enjoy eternal immunity from widowhood and is the mother of good sons hence her presence is considered very auspicious; saa.nnidhya yogaat= because Sachi Devi is present in that hall of bridegroom selection; svayam-vara kShobha kR^itaam= during the program of self-selection of bridegroom, disturbance, creators; a+bhaavaH kila= not, there, indeed; tena = for that reason; kaakutstham uddishya= Kakutstha [Aja], towards; sa-matsaraH api= with jealousy, though; kShiti-paala-lokaH= kings, group of; shashaama = remained quiet.
Because of the presence of Goddess Shachi in the hall of self-selecting bridegroom, there is certainly, an absence of disturbers in the process of self-selecting the bridegroom; as such, the host of other suitor-kings, though full of jealousy towards Prince Aja of Kakutstha, remained quiesced throughout. [7-3]
वरः सवध्वा सह राजमार्गम् प्राप ध्वजच्छायनिवारितोष्णम्॥ ७-४
varaḥ savadhvā saha rājamārgam
prāpa dhvajacchāyanivāritoṣṇam || 7-4
varaH savadhvaa saha raajamaargam
praapa dhvajacChaayanivaaritoShNam || 7-4
taavat prakiirNa abhinava upacaaram indra aayudha dyotita toraNaa~Nkam varaH sa vadhvaa saha raaja maargam praapa dhvaja cChaaya nivaarita uShNam
7-4. taavat= all over, fully - or meanwhile; prakiirNa abhinava upacaaram= strewn (everywhere) with fresh flowers and auspicious articles; indra aayudha dyotita toraNaa~Nkam= Indra's, weapon - rainbow, in sheen with, welcome arches - that which decorated with them; dhvaja cChaaya nivaarita uShNam= [on which road] by flags, shade, warded off, heat; raaja maargam= such a king's, way; saH varaH= that bridegroom - Prince Aja; vadhvaa saha= bride [Indumati], along with; praapa= on reaching - that kingsway;
Meanwhile the bridegroom Prince Aja along with his bride Indumati reached the king's way which by then is strewn everywhere with fresh flowers and auspicious articles; decorated with welcome arches radiant like the rainbow and along which road the shades of flags warded off the singe of Sun.
upmAna: indra aayudha; upameya: toraNaa~Nkam; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : dyotitam; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva - luptam; indrAyudhAni iva dyotitAni - samAsagata vAchaka luptopama.
ततस्तदालोकनतत्पराणाम् सौधेषु चामीकरजालवत्सु॥
बभूवुरित्थम् पुरसुन्दरीणाम् त्यक्तान्यकार्याणि विचेष्टितानि॥ ७-५
saudheṣu cāmīkarajālavatsu ||
tyaktānyakāryāṇi viceṣṭitāni || 7-5
saudheShu caamiikarajaalavatsu |
tyaktaanyakaaryaaNi viceShTitaani || 7-5
tataH tat aalokana tatparaaNaam saudheShu caamiikara jaalavatsu babhuuvuH ittham pura sundariiNaam tyakta anya kaaryaaNi viceShTitaani
7-5. tataH= then, at that time; caamiikara jaalavatsu saudheShu= from beautifully latticed windows, of upper stories of houses; tat= him - Prince Aja; aalokana tatparaaNaam= to see [Aja], those who are enthusiastic; pura sundariiNaam= city's, beauties; tyakta anya kaaryaaNi= leaving off, other, works of the day - like decorating themselves, grooming plaits, or other works of household; viceShTitaani= pravR^itti - their body language; ittham= in this way; babhuuvuH = it has become.
At that time, the fair ladies of the city, leaving off the works of their households or of their personal care for a while, started gathering at the beautifully latticed windows of upper stories of their buildings, to have a view of Prince Aja who is coming into city along with Princess Indumati in a procession, at which time the elated behaviour of those beauties of that city is as below. [7-5]
The above is explained in the following five verses.
आलोकमार्गम् सहसा व्रजन्त्या कयाचिदुद्वेष्टनवान्तमाल्यः।
बद्धुम् न संभावित एव तावत्करेण रुद्धोऽपि च केशपाशः॥ ७-६
ālokamārgam sahasā vrajantyā
baddhum na saṁbhāvita eva
tāvatkareṇa ruddho'pi ca keśapāśaḥ || 7-6
Alokamaargam sahasaa vrajantyaa
baddhum na sa.nbhaavita eva
taavatkareNa ruddho.api ca keshapaashaH || 7-6
aaloka maargam sahasaa vrajantyaa kayaacit udveShTana vaanta maalyaH baddhum na sambhaavita eva taavat kareNa ruddhaH api ca kesha paashaH
7-6. sahasaa aaloka maargam vrajantyaa= when quickly, to seeing, passage [to window / ventilator], [one lady] who is rushing to; kayaacit= some lady; udveShTana= on account of the knot of braid having got loose; vaanta= vomited - here slithered; maalyaH= tassel of flowers; kareNa ruddhaH api ca kesha paashaH= by a hand, handled, even, hair, pleats; taavat= till then - till reaching the window; baddhum na sambhaavita eva = to knot the braid, not, thought of, at least.
A certain lady while suddenly rushing to the window to catch a glimpse of the procession, neither bothered for braiding her loosened hairdo nor about the flowers slithering therefrom, though she is halfway through it holding tresses in her hand, until she reached the window. [7-6]
The word vAnta literally means vomiting, purging etc; though mentioned as a grAmya / gaUNa prayogam, that word is in a subordinate position and therefore, does not detract the beauty of the expression, as mentioned in kaavyaada. I. 95. viShTUtodgIrNa vAntAdi gauNa vR^itti vyapAshrayam... daNDin. Hence it is to be taken here as cast out, and because it is a tassel of flowers it is slithered from hairdo.
उत्सृष्टलीलागतिरागवाक्षादलक्तकाङ्काम् पदवीम् ततान॥ ७-७
mākṣipya kāciddravarāgameva |
ktakāṅkām padavīm tatāna || 7-7
maakShipya kaaciddravaraagameva |
ktakaa~Nkaam padaviim tataana || 7-7
prasaadhika aalambitam agra paadam aakShipya kaacit drava raagam eva utsR^iShTa liilaa gatiH aagavaakShaat alaktaka a~Nkaam padaviim tataana
7-7. kaacit= another woman; prasaadhika= a servant maid who does decoration, makeup; aalambitam= held by such a servant maid; agra paadam= forefoot; drava raagam eva= even while the foot is still wet with red-dye on it; aakShipya= withdrawing; utsR^iShTa liilaa gatiH= abandoning, [usual] graceful, gait - quickening her pace; aa+gavaakShaat= up to window; padaviim= path; alaktaka a~Nkaam tataana= red-dye, imprints, spread - dabbled the floor.
Another woman suddenly withdrew her foot from the hands of helping maid who is decorating it so far with red lac dye, and abandoning her usual graceful gait sped to a window even while the foot is still wet with red-dye, just to gaze the new bridegroom Prince Aja, thus dabbling the floor up to the window with wet red-dye footprints. [7-7]
विलोचनम् दक्षिणमञ्जनेन संभाव्य तद्वञ्चितवामनेत्रा।
तथैव वातायनसंनिकर्षम् ययौ शलाकामपरा वहन्ती॥ ७-८
yayau śalākāmaparā vahantī || 7-8
yayau shalaakaamaparaa vahantii || 7-8
vilocanam dakShiNam a~njanena sa.mbhaavya tat va~ncita vaama netraa tathaiva vaata ayana sa.nnikarSham yayau shalaakaam aparaa vahantii
7-8. aparaa= another lady; dakShiNam vilocanam a~njanena sa.nbhaavya= right, eye, with mascara, on decorating; tat va~ncita vaama netraa= by that [by mascara], neglected, left, eye; tathaiva= so also; shalaakaam= a small applicator for applying mascara; vahantii= carrying; vaata ayana= to a ventilator, window; sa.nnikarSham= to its nearby; yayau = went.
Another lady who has just applied mascara on her right eye, found no time to apply it on her left eye, rushed to the window still handling the small applicator of mascara, for quick glimpsing the procession of Prince Aja and his bride Indumati. [7-8]
According to the shruti - savyam hi pUrvam manuShyA a~njate - quoted by mallinAtha - the left-eye is to be first painted with mascara, but this woman in the hurry paints the right-eye with it, suggesting a topsy-turvy in haste.
जालान्तरप्रेषितदृष्टिरन्या प्रस्थानभिन्नाम् न बबन्ध नीवीम्।
नाभिप्रविष्टाभरणप्रभेन हस्तेन तस्थाववलम्ब्य वासः॥ ७-९
prasthānabhinnām na babandha nīvīm |
hastena tasthāvavalambya vāsaḥ || 7-9
prasthaanabhinnaam na babandha niiviim |
hastena tasthaavavalambya vaasaH || 7-9
jaala antara preShita dR^iShTiH anyaa prasthaana bhinnaam na babandha niiviim naabhi praviShTa aabharaNa prabhena hastena tasthau avavalambya vaasaH
7-9. anyaa= another lady; jaala antara preShita dR^iShTiH= lattice, inside, sent, look - whose look is penetrating the lattices of window; prasthaana bhinnaam niiviim = by speed walking, loosened, knot - saree knot slipping; na babandha= not, tied again; naabhi praviShTa aabharaNa prabhena= naval, entered, jeweelry's, radiance; hastena avavalambya vaasaH= with hands, gripping, her raiment; tasthau = she stood.
Another lady whose sight by now is penetrating through the lattice of window has not retied the knot of her garment loosened by her rapid motion, but stood there clasping saree in her hands, whereby the lustre of her hand jewellery, like rings, armlets etc spreading on her naval substituted her waistline garment. [7-9]
अर्धाञ्चिता सत्वरमुत्थितायाः पदे पदे दुर्निमिते गलन्ती।
कस्याश्चिदासीद्रशना तदानीमङ्गुष्ठमूलार्पितसूत्रशेषा॥ ७-१०
pade pade durnimite galantī |
aṅguṣṭhamūlārpitasūtraśeṣā || 7-10
pade pade durnimite galantii |
a~NguShThamuulaarpitasuutrasheShaa || 7-10
ardha a~ncitaa satvaram utthitaayaaH pade pade durnimite galantii kasyaashcit aasiit rashanaa tadaaniim a~NguShTha muula arpita suutra sheShaa
7-10. satvaram utthitaayaaH= suddenly, on getting up; kasyaashcit= of another lady; ardha a~ncitaa= half, strung [jewels in a string]; durnimite= by faltering [steps]; pade pade= on each and every step; galantii = slipping down; rashanaa= girdle of jewels; tadaaniim= at that time; a~NguShTha muula arpita= thumb, at its base, given- tied; suutra sheShaa aasiit = thread, remnant only, it became.
Another lady who is half way through stringing jewels for her girdle on a thread knotted to her thumb at the other end, suddenly rushed to window on hearing about the arrival of procession, whereby half-strung jewels dropped to floor, one by one at each and every hurried step of hers, whereby the would-have-been jewel-girdle remained as a bare string knotted on her thumb. [7-10]
तासाम् मुखैरासवगन्धगर्भैर्व्याप्तान्तराः सान्द्रकुतूहलानाम्।
विलोलनेत्रभ्रमरैर्गवाक्षाः सहस्रपत्राभरणा इवासन्॥ ७-११
vyāptāntarāḥ sāndrakutūhalānām |
sahasrapatrābharaṇā ivāsan || 7-11
vyaaptaantaraaH saandrakutuuhalaanaam |
sahasrapatraabharaNaa ivaasan || 7-11
taasaam mukhaiH aasava gandha garbhaiH vyaapta antaraaH saandra kutuuhalaanaam vilola netra bhramaraiH gavaakShaaH sahasra patra aabharaNaa iva aasan
7-11. At that time; saandra kutuuhalaanaam= with intensely curious [women]; taasaam= of those women; aasava gandha garbhaiH= soft-drinks, aroma, in belly - [faces] filled with the aroma of soft-drinks; vilola netra bhramaraiH= with rolling, eyes, [called] honeybees; mukhaiH= with such faces; vyaapta antaraaH= [such faces] filling, the middle [of windows]; gavaakShaaH= windows; sahasra patra= with thousand petaled ones - lotuses; aabharaNaa iva= ornaments, as if; aasan = are there.
At that time, the windows of buildings in that city appeared to have been ornamented with thousand petaled lotuses, because they are crammed with the lotusy faces of intensely curious women, where the lotuses have fragrance while the faces of womenfolk are fragrant with aroma of drinks; bees will be flitting on lotuses, while the petal like eyelids are flitting on bee-like eyes that are equally flitting to catch a glimpse of new bridegroom Prince Aja. [7-11]
Please see Joglekar's commentary on this verse. alankAra: utpreksha
upmAna: gavaakShaaH; upameya: gavaakShaaH; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : paurAnganA/sarasImukha AcChAditam; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva; biMba: sahasra patra ; pratibiMba: aabharaNaaH; gandha garbhatva, chanchala bhramavatvam - kamalaiH; aasava gandha garbhatva, chanchala netravatvam - paurAnganaiH; aupamyam : mukhAH - kamalAH; netrAH - bhramaraaH.
ता राघवम् दृष्टिभिरापिबन्त्यो नार्यो न जग्मुर्विषयान्तराणि।
तथा हि शेषेन्द्रियवृत्तिरासाम् सर्वात्मना चक्षुरिव प्रविष्टा॥ ७-१२
tā rāghavam dṛṣṭibhirāpibantyo
nāryo na jagmurviṣayāntarāṇi |
tathā hi śeṣendriyavṛttirāsām
sarvātmanā cakṣuriva praviṣṭā || 7-12
taa raaghavam dR^iShTibhiraapibantyo
naaryo na jagmurviShayaantaraaNi |
tathaa hi sheShendriyavR^ittiraasaam
sarvaatmanaa cakShuriva praviShTaa || 7-12
taa raaghavam dR^iShTibhiH aapibantyaH naaryaH na jagmuH viShayaantaraaNi tathaa hi sheSha indriya vR^ittiH aasaam sarvaatmanaa cakShuH iva praviShTaa
7-12. taa naaryaH= those, women; raaghavam dR^iShTibhiH aapibantyaH= Raghu's legatee, with looks alone, guzzling down; viShayaantaraaNi = other aspects [like hearing about Aja etc]; na jagmuH= not, heeded; tathaa hi= yes, indeed; because; aasaam= their; sheSha indriya vR^ittiH= other, sense-organ's, function; sarvaatmanaa cakShuH praviShTaa iva= completely, in organ of sight, entered, as if.
The other sense organs of those ladies like listening and touching etc seems to have come to naught while they drank, as it were, the legatee of Raghu with their eyes; perhaps, owing to the irruption of the rest of sense organs into their sensory experience of sight. [7-12]
alankAram : utprekSha.
The three verses from this are the chitchatting of womenfolk on seeing Prince Aja and Indumati.
स्थाने वृता भूपतिभिः परोक्षैः स्वयंवरम् साधुममंस्त भोज्या।
पद्मेव नारायणमन्यथासौ लभेत कान्तम् कथमात्मतुल्यम्॥ ७-१३
sthāne vṛtā bhūpatibhiḥ parokṣaiḥ
svayaṁvaram sādhumamaṁsta bhojyā |
padmeva nārāyaṇamanyathāsau labheta
kāntam kathamātmatulyam || 7-13
sthaane vR^itaa bhuupatibhiH parokShaiH
svaya.nvaram saadhumama.nsta bhojyaa |
padmeva naaraayaNamanyathaasau labheta
kaantam kathamaatmatulyam || 7-13
sthaane vR^itaa bhuupatibhiH parokShaiH svaya.nvaram saadhum ma.nsta bhojyaa padma iva naaraayaNam anyathaa asau labheta kaantam katham aatmatulyam
7-13. bhojyaa= King Bhoja's sister - Indumati; parokShaiH= para + akShaiH= beyond, eyes - unseen; bhuupatibhiH= by kings - attending svayamvaram; vR^itaa= chosen, selected; begged, solicited - from vR^i - 5th, 9th Ubha. 'to court, to solicit'; svaya.nvaram saadhum ama.nsta= self-selecting bridegroom, the best, she thought; sthaane= it is proper, beseeming; anyathaa= otherwise, how else; asau= she that Indumati; padma naaraayaNam iva= Lakshmi, Narayana, as with; aatmatulyam kaantam katham labheta= suitable, bridegroom, how, she could get.
"It is beseeming that this Princess Indumati deemed svayamvara as the best course for her to follow, for many kings and princes, either seen or unseen by her, have ardently wished to clinch her hand in marriage; how else could she have obtained an equally worthy husband of her, just as Lakshmi obtained Narayana... [7-13]
upmAna: lakShmi; upameya: indumati; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : aatmatulya kaanta lAbha; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva; biMba: kAntam - aja; pratibiMba: nArAyaNa; ubhayAnvayi : aatmatulyatvam; anugAmitva - shleSha - bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa. arthAntaranyAsa - can also be derived from this.
परस्परेण स्पृहणीयशोभम् न चेदिदम् द्वन्द्वमयोजयिष्यत्।
अस्मिन्द्वये रूपविधानयत्नः पत्युः प्रजानाम् वितथोऽभविष्यत्॥ ७-१४
na cedidam dvandvamayojayiṣyat |
patyuḥ prajānām vitatho'bhaviṣyat || 7-14
na cedidam dvandvamayojayiShyat |
patyuH prajaanaam vitatho.abhaviShyat || 7-14
paraspareNa spR^ihaNiiya shobham na cet idam dvandvam ayojayiShyat asmin dvaye ruupa vidhaana yatnaH patyuH prajaanaam vitathaH abhaviShyat
7-14. spR^ihaNiiya shobham idam dvandvam = cherishable, beauty, of this, pair; paraspareNa na ayojayiShyat cet= one with the other, not, conjoined, if; prajaanaam patyuH= created beings, ruler of - Brahma, and his craftsmanship in; asmin dvaye ruupa vidhaana yatnaH= this, pair's, beauty, in the creating, effort; vitathaH abhaviShyat = futile, would have become.
"Had the Creator Brahma not united this couple of cherishable beauty one with the other, his efforts of creating beauty in this pair would have been fruitless.. [7-14]
रतिस्मरौ नूनमिमावभूताम् राज्ञाम् सहस्रेषु तथा हि बाला।
गतेयमात्मप्रतिरूपमेव मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम्॥ ७-१५
rājñām sahasreṣu tathā hi bālā |
mano hi janmāntarasaṁgatijñam || 7-15
raaj~naam sahasreShu tathaa hi baalaa |
mano hi janmaantarasa.ngatij~nam || 7-15
rati smarau nuunam imau abhuutaam raaj~naam sahasreShu tathaa hi baalaa gataa iyam aatma pratiruupam eva manaH hi janmaantara sa.ngati j~nam
7-15. rati smarau= Rati Devi, Manmatha; nuunam imau abhuutaam= definitely, these two, have become; tathaa hi= that must be that; iyam baalaa= this, girl; raaj~naam sahasreShu= from among kings, thousands of; aatma pratiruupam eva gataa= of her own self, counterpart, only, reached - selected; manaH janmaantara sa.ngati j~nam hi= heart, in life-cycles, association, cognisant, indeed.
"These two are undoubtedly Rati Devi and Manmatha in human form... that is why this maiden has chosen Prince Aja as her own match from among thousands of kings... after all, it is heart that cognises connubial tie-ups existing in all lifecycles... [7-15]
sAmAnya is supported by visheSha hence - arthAntara nyAsa.
इत्युद्गताः पौरवधूमुखेभ्यः शृण्वन्कथाः श्रोत्रसुखाः कुमारः।
उद्भासितम् मङ्गलसंविधाभिः संबन्धिनः सद्म समाससाद॥ ७-१६
śṛṇvankathāḥ śrotrasukhāḥ kumāraḥ |
saṁbandhinaḥ sadma samāsasāda || 7-16
shR^iNvankathaaH shrotrasukhaaH kumaaraH |
sa.nbandhinaH sadma samaasasaada || 7-16
iti udgataaH paura vadhuu mukhebhyaH shR^iNvan kathaaH shrotra sukhaaH kumaaraH udbhaasitam ma~Ngala sa.mvidhaabhiH sa.nbandhinaH sadma samaasasaada
7-16. iti= in this way; paura vadhuu mukhebhyaH udgataaH = city, ladies, from mouths, praised; shrotra ukhaaH kathaaH shR^iNvan= ear, pleasing, praises, while hearing; kumaaraH= Prince Aja; ma~Ngala sa.mvidhaabhiH udbhaasitam= with auspicious, decorations, adorned with; sambandhinaH sadma samaasasaada= father of the bride, house of, reached.
In this way, Prince Aja while hearing such ear-pleasing praises expressed by the ladies of that city reached the
In this way, hearing the ear-pleasing words uttered by the women of the city, Prince Aja reached the palace of his would-be father-in-law, which by then is embellished with auspicious decorations like buntings of mango leaves, flower festoons etc. [7-16]
ततोऽवतीर्याशु करेणुकायाः स कामरूपेश्वरदत्तहस्तः।
वैदर्भनिर्दिष्टमथो विवेश नारीमनांसीव चतुष्कमन्तः॥ ७-१७
tato'vatīryāśu kareṇukāyāḥ sa
nārīmanāṁsīva catuṣkamantaḥ || 7-17
sa kaamaruupeshvaradattahastaH |
naariimanaa.nsiiva catuShkamantaH || 7-17
tataH avatiirya aashu kareNukaayaaH sa kaama ruupeshvara datta hastaH vaidarbha nirdiShTam athaH vivesha naarii manaansi iva catuShkam antaH
7-17. tataH= then; saH= he Prince Aja; kareNukaayaaH aashu avatiirya= from female-elephant, qquickly, on alighting; kaamaruupa iishvara datta hastaH= Kaamaruupa, lord of, given, with arm support; athaH= immediately; vaidarbha nirdiShTam antaH catuShkam= by the king of Vidarbha, indicated, inner, quadrangle of the palace; naarii manaa.nsi iva= women, hearts, as if; vivesha= entered.
Then the prince nimbly alighting from the back of female-elephant with the support of helping hand extended by the lord of the kAmarUpa province, has entered the inner-quadrangle of marriage-hall as indicated by the lord the Vidarbha; coincidentally he entered the hearts of the palace women assembled there, as well. [7-17]
Generally a she-elephant is used for riding in auspicious or religious processions, since the female does not get suddenly infuriated like the male. Please see Joglekar's commentary.
upmAna: naarii manaa.nsi; upameya: chatvaram - four pillared pendal; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : pravesham; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva.
महार्हसिंहासनसंस्थितोऽसौ सरत्नमर्घ्यम् मधुपर्कमिश्रम्।
भोजोपनीतम् च दुकूलयुग्मम् जग्राह सार्धम् वनिताकटाक्षैः॥ ७-१८
saratnamarghyam madhuparkamiśram |
bhojopanītam ca dukūlayugmam
jagrāha sārdham vanitākaṭākṣaiḥ || 7-18
saratnamarghyam madhuparkamishram |
bhojopaniitam ca dukuulayugmam
jagraaha saardham vanitaakaTaakShaiH || 7-18
mahaarha simhaasana sa.nsthitaH asau sa ratnam arghyam madhu parka mishram bhoja upaniitam ca dukuula yugmam jagraaha saardham vanitaa kaTaakShaiH
7-18. mahaarha simhaasana sa.nsthitaH asau= on a highly, valuable, throne, seated, he - Aja; bhoja upaniitam = by king Bhoja, brought; sa ratnam= [an offering of] jewels; arghyam= worship articles like water etc; madhu parka mishram= madhu-parka, included; dukuula yugmam ca= silk robes, a pair of, also; vanitaa kaTaakShaiH saardham= ladies, sidelong glances, along with; jagraaha= received.
Sitting on a most valuable throne, Prince Aja then received welcome-offerings that are brought by Lord of Bhoja, which contained jewels, worship articles, a mixture of madhu-parkam, and a pair of silk robes along with the sidelong glances of ladies gathered there.
madhu-parka = madhunA pR^iccyate iti madhuparka; this is generally a respectful offering to a distinguished guest now restricted only in deity worships or to the bride-groom on his arrival at the entrance of the marriage-hall of the bride's father. The ingredients of madhu-parka liquid are curds, clarified butter, honey, sugar, and water. This will be presented by the father of bride who makes the bridegroom to sip it as tiirtham taken after deity worship. A pair of silk cloths will also be given to the bridegroom at this time. As such, this pair of silk cloths offered came to be called as madhuparka-s, while that liquid lost its meaning and existence. Please see Joglekar's commentary.
दुकूलवासाः स वधूसमीपम् निन्ये विनीतैरवरोधरक्षैः।
वेलासकाशम् स्फुटफेनराजिर्नवैरुदन्वानिव चन्द्रपादैः॥ ७-१९
dukūlavāsāḥ sa vadhūsamīpam
ninye vinītairavarodharakṣaiḥ |
navairudanvāniva candrapādaiḥ || 7-19
dukuulavaasaaH sa vadhuusamiipam
ninye viniitairavarodharakShaiH |
udanvaaniva candrapaadaiH || 7-19
dukuula vaasaaH sa vadhuu samiipam ninye viniitaiH avarodha rakShaiH velaa sakaasham sphuTa phena raajiH navaiH udanvaan iva candra paadaiH
7-19. dukuula vaasaaH= clad in pure white silks; saH= he, Aja; viniitaiH avarodha rakShaiH= obedient, palace-chambers, safe guarders; vadhuu samiipam= to bride's, nearby; sphuTa phena raajiH= with distinct, foam, rows; udanvaan= lord of ocean; navaiH candra paadaiH= new, moon's, by moonbeams; velaa sakaasham iva= to shoreline, proximity, as with; ninye= he is led.
Prince Aja clad in pure white silks is then led to the proximity of bride Indumati by the humble keepers of palace-chambers, as with ocean containing whitely white bubbly billows led to the shoreline by the beams of new moon. [7-19]
The simile here is very complete. alankAra= dR^iShTAna.
upmAna: udanvAn - samudra; upameya: aja; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : ninye; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva;
1] dukuula vaasaH - aja - biMba, sphuTa phena raajiH - samudra - pratibiMba; 2] vinItAH - bimba, nava [chandrapAdAH]- pratibimba; 3] avarodha rakShaaH - bimba, chandra pAdAH - pratibimba; 4] vadhuu samiipam - bimba, velaa sakaasham - pratibimba; ubhayAnvayi : ninye. anugAmitva bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa.
तत्रार्चितो भोजपतेः पुरोधा हुत्वाग्निमाज्यादिभिरग्निकल्पः।
तमेव चाधाय विवाहसाक्ष्ये वधूवरौ संगमयांचकार॥ ७-२०
tatrārcito bhojapateḥ purodhā
tameva cādhāya vivāhasākṣye
vadhūvarau saṁgamayāṁcakāra || 7-20
tatraarcito bhojapateH purodhaa
tameva caadhaaya vivaahasaakShye
vadhuuvarau sa.ngamayaa.ncakaara || 7-20
tatra arcitaH bhoja pateH purodhaa hutvaa agnim aajyaadibhiH agni kalpaH tam eva ca aadhaaya vivaaha saakShye vadhuu varau sa.ngamayaa.n cakaara
7-20. tatra= in that marriage hall; arcitaH= the venerable one - priest; agni kalpaH= one equal to the sacred fire - priest; bhoja pateH purodhaa= Bhoja, lord's, priest; aajyaadibhiH agnim hutvaa= with ghee, etc, ritual fire, on kindling; tam eva= him alone - ritual fire alone; vivaaha saakShye aadhaaya ca= as marriage, witness, by keeping; vadhuu varau sa.ngamayaa.n cakaara= bride, bridegroom, wedlock, made.
The venerable and sacred-fire-like priest of the Bhoja family then kindling the ritual fire in that marriage-hall by offering clarified butter etc into it, and making the very same ritual-fire as a witness to the marriage, united the bride and the bridegroom in wedlock. [7-20]
upamAna : agni; upameya : purohita; sA. dha - lupta; vaachakam : kalpa; because the word kalpa is a little inferior to routine word iva - hence, this comes under dharma lupta arthi upama.
हस्तेन हस्तम् परिगृह्य वध्वाः स राजसूनुः सुतराम् चकासे।
अनन्तराशोकलताप्रवालम् प्राप्येव चूतः प्रतिपल्लवेन॥ ७-२१
hastena hastam parigṛhya vadhvāḥ
sa rājasūnuḥ sutarām cakāse |
prāpyeva cūtaḥ pratipallavena || 7-21
hastena hastam parigR^ihya vadhvaaH
sa raajasuunuH sutaraam cakaase |
praapyeva cuutaH pratipallavena || 7-21
hastena hastam parigR^ihya vadhvaaH sa raaja suunuH sutaraam cakaase anantara ashoka lataa pravaalam praapya iva cuutaH pratipallavena
7-21. saH raaja suunuH= that, Prince, Aja; hastena= with his own hand vadhvaaH hastam parigR^ihya= bride's, hand, on taking; anantara= that which is nearby; ashoka lataa pravaalam = Ashoka plant's, sprout; pratipallavena= corresponding sprout - of mango; praapya= by clinging; cuutaH iva= mango tree, like; sutaraam cakaase = highly shone forth.
That prince Aja shone still brighter on holding bride's hand with his own, like a mango-tree when it has reached the tender sprout of a neighbouring Ashoka tree by means of a corresponding leaf of its own. [7-21]
Prince Aja clasped / Her hand in his, and greater lustre gained, / As when a mango clasps with answering sprout / The Ashoka's tendril.
Coppery colour is common to both the leaflets of Ashoka and Mango, comparable with the roseate palms of bride and bridegroom. But those leaflets will be punily lengthy like fingers of humans, and hence they are comparable to hands. Further, Ashoka and Mango are the auspicious plants - manglakara.
upmAna: cuutaH vRiksham; upameya: rAja puitra; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : sutaraam cakaase = highly shone forth; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva;
biMba: 1] vadhuu hastam= bride's, hand; 2] varasya hastam - bridegroom's hand; pratibiMba: 1] ashoka lataa pravaalam; 2] chUta pallavam; two words prApya, pratigRihya mean the same - hence, vastu prativastu bhAva; as such, anugAmitva - vastu prativastu bhAva- bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa
आसीद्वरः कण्टकितप्रकोष्ठः स्विन्नाङ्गुलिः संववृते कुमारी।
तस्मिन्द्वये तत्क्षणमात्मवृत्तिः समम् विभक्तेव मनोभवेन॥ ७-२२
svinnāṅguliḥ saṁvavṛte kumārī |
samam vibhakteva manobhavena || 7-22
svinnaa~NguliH sa.nvavR^ite kumaarii |
samam vibhakteva manobhavena || 7-22
aasiit varaH kaNTakita prakoShThaH svinna a~NguliH samvavR^ite kumaarii tasmin dvaye tatkShaNam aatma vR^ittiH samam vibhaktaa iva manobhavena
7-22. varaH kaNTakita prakoShThaH aasiit= bridegroom, horripilated - thrilled, forearm, has become; kumaarii svinna a~NguliH samvavR^ite= that young girl, with sweat, on fingers, tasmin dvaye tatkShaNam = in that, couple, at that moment; aatma vR^ittiH = their personal comport; manobhavena samam vibhaktaa iva = by Lovegod, equally, divided - in them.
At that moment, the forearm of the bridegroom is thrilled and the fingers of the bride are moistened with perspiration: so, it appeared that by the joining of their hands the action of love was equally divided between the pair. [7-22]
This observation is used as a test whether boy and girl are interested in each other or not, as elucidated by vAtsAyana in his kAma sUtra - kanyA tu prathama samAgame svinnAnguliH.... puruShaH tu romAnchito bhavati... ebhiH anayoH bhAvam parIkSheta...
ह्रीयन्त्रणामानशिरे मनोज्ञामन्योन्यलोलानि विलोचनानि॥ ७-२३
manyonyalolāni vilocanāni || 7-23
manyonyalolaani vilocanaani || 7-23
tayoH apaa~Nga pratisaaritaani kriyaa samaapatti nivartitaani hrii yantraNaam aanashire manoj~naam anyonya lolaani vilocanaani
7-23. apaa~Nga pratisaaritaani= to the end, extending - pupils moving towards the end of the corners - mutually exchanging sidelong glances; kriyaa samaapatti nivartitaani= their object, when finished, withdrawn - when once their eyes are met, those sidelong glances are withdrawn; anyonya lolaani= insatiately coveting to see one another; tayoH vilocanaani= both of their eyes; manoj~naam hrii yantraNaam aanashire a lovely, bashfulness, constraint of, they obtained.
Their eyes, insatiately coveting to see one another by straining up to the very outer corners in mutually exchanging sidelong glances, but withdrawing the moment their object of meeting the other eye is finished, acquired a constraint of bashfulness which is pretty. [7-23]
मेरोरुपान्तेष्विव वर्तमानमन्योन्यसंसक्तमहस्त्रियामम्॥ ७-२४
udarciṣastanmithunam cakāśe |
anyonyasaṁsaktamahastriyāmam || 7-24
udarciShastanmithunam cakaashe |
anyonyasa.nsaktamahastriyaamam || 7-24
pradakShiNa prakramaNaat kR^ishaanoH ut+arciShaH tat mithunam cakaashe meroH upaanteShu iva vartamaanam anyonya sa.nsaktam ahaH triyaamam
7-24. tat mithunam= that couple; ut+arciShaH kR^ishaanoH pradakShiNa prakramaNaat= up-swinging tongues of fie, of ritual-fire, circumambulations, while making; meroH upaanteShu vartamaanam= at Mt. Meru, mountainsides, taking revolutions; anyonya sa.nsaktam= one with the other, tagging; ahaH triyaamam iva= day, night, as with; cakaashe= shone forth.
While circumambulating the brilliant ritual-fire, the newly wed couple glowed like day and night succeeding closely upon each other while they revolve round the brilliant Mt. Meru. [7-24]
Then round the blazing fire / They circled to the left, as day and night / Course round Mount Meru, and conjunctive beamed. - P. De Lacy Johnstone, 1902
Mt. Meru is supposed to be a mass of glowing gold. suvarNam taijasam - tarka shAstra; hence, the comparison is between: Mt. Meru glowing like gold - fire; ahas- day - Aja; triyAma - night - Indumati; alankAra : upama; revolving - common to both.
upmAna: ahastriyaamam; upameya:mithunam; sAdhAraNa /
anugAmi dharmam : prakAsham; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva;
biMba: udarciSha - for kRishAnu meru-s; pratibiMba: anyonya sa.nsaktam - for mithunAhastriyAmAH;ubhayAnvayi : prakAshatvam; anugAmitva - shleSha - bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa
नितम्बगुर्वी गुरुणा प्रयुक्ता वधूर्विधातृप्रतिमेन तेन।
चकार सा मत्तचकोरनेत्रा लज्जावती लाजविसर्गमग्नौ॥ ७-२५
nitambagurvī guruṇā prayuktā
vadhūrvidhātṛpratimena tena |
cakāra sā mattacakoranetrā
lajjāvatī lājavisargamagnau || 7-25
nitambagurvii guruNaa prayuktaa
vadhuurvidhaatR^ipratimena tena |
cakaara saa mattacakoranetraa
lajjaavatii laajavisargamagnau || 7-25
nitamba gurvii guruNaa prayuktaa vadhuuH vidhaatR^i pratimena tena cakaara saa matta cakora netraa lajjaavatii laaja visargam agnau
7-25. nitamba gurvii= heavy hipped one; vidhaatR^i pratimena tena guruNaa= of Brahma, the very image, by that, spiritual teacher; prayuktaa= she who is asked to do homam - Indumati; lajjaavatii saa vadhuuH= a bashful one, she, that bride; matta cakora netraa= [whose eyes have become red like those of] an excited Chakora bird; agnau laaja visargam cakaara = in fire, fried rice - pop-rice [like pop-corn], offered,
The heavy hipped bashful bride, whose eyes are by now reddened owing to the smoke of ritual-fire, yet looked like those of an excited Chakora bird, unwearyingly made offerings of fried grain to the sacred fire, lAja-homam, according to the directions of the spiritual guide who is the very image of Brahma, conducting that marriage ceremony. [7-25]
The Chakora, the ordinary partridge, is a bird of the genus Tetraoperdix of which there are several varieties. It is a smart bird with a well set head and prominent reddish eyes (on which account the bird is taken as 'an object of comparison' especially in reference to the eyes of women) and legs. Many of them have spotted feathers. In the tropics it is generally found in the new greenswards in pairs after the rains.
The eyes of the princess had been reddened by the smoke of the ceremonial fire, and their comparison with the eyes of an excited Chakora is charming. Please see Joglekar's commentary.
upmAna: vidhaata; upameya: guru; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi
dharmam : luptam; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: pratima;
upmAna: matta cakora netraa; upameya: indumatI netrA; ; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : luptam; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva - luptam; upamAna-dharma-vAchaka- luptopama.
हविःशमीपल्लवलाजगन्धी पुण्यः कृशानोरुदियाय धूमः।
कपोलसंसर्पिशिखः स तस्या मुहूर्तकर्णोत्पलताम् प्रपेदे॥ ७-२६
puṇyaḥ kṛśānorudiyāya dhūmaḥ |
kapolasaṁsarpiśikhaḥ sa tasyā
muhūrtakarṇotpalatām prapede || 7-26
haviH shamii pallava laaja gandhii puNyaH kR^ishaanoH udiyaaya dhuumaH kapola sa.nsarpi shikhaH sa tasyaaH muhuurta karNa utpalataam prapede
7-26. haviH shamii pallava laaja = of clarified butter, of Shami [cassia] leaves, of fried grain; gandhii= having fragrance; puNyaH dhuumaH= sacred, smoke; kR^ishaanoH udiyaaya= from fire, arose; kapola sa.nsarpi saH shikhaH= cheeks, touching, those, curls - of smoke; tasyaaH= for her; muhuurta karNa utpalataam prapede = for a moment, ear-ornament, in the form of a blue lotus, served as.
Sacred smoke fragrant with the scents of oblations like ghee, Shami [cassia] leaves, and pop-rice, rose up from the ritual-fire which when spiralling her cheeks served like an ear-ornament of blue-lotus for a moment. [7-26]
The Shami is a tree of the order Acaoia and is very hard. It is supposed to contain fire in a dormant state. Sacred fire is kindled by rubbing together two pieces of this wood.
वधूमुखम् पाटलगन्धलेखमाचारधूमग्रहणाद्बभूव॥ ७-२७
ācāradhūmagrahaṇādbabhūva || 7-27
aacaaradhuumagrahaNaadbabhuuva || 7-27
tat a~njana kleda samaakula akSham pramlaana biija a~Nkura karNa puuram vadhuu mukham paaTala gandha lekham aacaara dhuuma grahaNaat babhuuva
7-27. tat vadhuu mukham= that, bride's, face; aacaara dhuuma grahaNaat= customary, smoke, on receiving - smoke-filling; a~njana kleda samaakula akSham= with mascara, moistened, bedimmed eyes - eyes troubled with moistened mascara; pramlaana biija a~Nkura karNa puuram= withered, sprouts, of seeds, used as ear-ornaments; paaTala gandha lekham= reddened, cheeks, contours; babhuuva= she became.
Exposed to the smoke of the sacrificial ceremony in accordance with the religious custom, the face of the bride had the eyes troubled with the moistened mascara, sprouts worn as ear-ornaments faded, and the expanse of the cheeks became ruddy, in spite if it she continued the consuetude of lAja homam.
It was customary to wear ringlets formed from blades of grass and of corn-flowers and such natural decorations to a very great extent. This can be glimpsed in the paintings of rAja ravi varma.
तौ स्नातकैर्बन्धुमता च राज्ञा पुरंध्रिभिश्च क्रमशः प्रयुक्तम्।
कन्याकुमारौ कनकासनस्थावार्द्राक्षतारोपणमन्वभूताम्॥ ७-२८
tau snātakairbandhumatā ca rājñā
puraṁdhribhiśca kramaśaḥ prayuktam |
drākṣatāropaṇamanvabhūtām || 7-28
tau snaatakairbandhumataa ca raaj~naa
pura.ndhribhishca kramashaH prayuktam |
draakShataaropaNamanvabhuutaam || 7-28
tau snaatakaiH bandhumataa ca raaj~naa pura.ndhribhiH ca kramashaH prayuktam kanyaa kumaarau kanaka aasana sthau aardra akShata aaropaNam anvabhuutaam
7-28. kanaka aasana sthau tau kanyaa kumaarau= on golden, throne, seated, those two, bride, bridegroom; snaatakaiH= one who has bathed at the conclusion of his studies - became a householder; bandhumataa raaj~naa ca= = along with kinsmen, by king Bhoja, also; pura.ndhribhiH ca= by the matrons (having their husbands and sons alive); kramashaH prayuktam= in regular order, showered; aardra akShata aaropaNam= saffron-rice - a quantity of unbroken entire rice-grains wetted and smeared with turmeric powder and kumkuma), showering that rice on the heads o newly weds; anvabhuutaam= [newly wed] enjoyed.
Sitting on a golden throne the bride and bridegroom then enjoyed the showers of saffron-rice successively showered on their heads by elderly householders, king Bhoja with relatives, and by the estimable matrons. [7-28]
इति स्वसुर्भोजकुलप्रदीपः संपाद्य पाणिग्रहणम् स राजा।
महीपतीनाम् पृथगर्हणार्थम् समादिदेशाधिकृतानधिश्रीः॥ ७-२९
saṁpādya pāṇigrahaṇam sa rājā |
samādideśādhikṛtānadhiśrīḥ || 7-29
iti svasurbhojakulapradiipaH sa.npaadya
paaNigrahaNam sa raajaa |
mahiipatiinaam pR^ithagarhaNaartham samaadideshaadhikR^itaanadhishriiH || 7-29
iti svasuH bhoja kula pradiipaH sa.npaadya paaNigrahaNam sa raajaa mahiipatiinaam pR^ithak arhaNaartham samaadidesha adhikR^itaan adhishriiH
7-29. adhishriiH = highly prosperous one; bhoja kula pradiipaH = for Bhoja, dynasty, a beacon light; sa raajaa= that, king Bhoja; iti svasuH paaNigrahaNam sa.npaadya = in this, way, sister's, marriage, on accomplishing; mahiipatiinaam = kings - suitor king who have come; pR^ithak= one by one; arhaNaartham= to pay respects - with presents etc; adhikR^itaan samaadidesha = court officers, ordered.
Accomplishing his sister's marriage in this way, that highly prosperous king and the beacon light of Bhoja dynasty, then ordered his court officers to pay respects on his behalf to each one of the suitor-kings assembled there, in the form of gifts and presents. [7-29]
लिङ्गैर्मुदः संवृतविक्रियास्ते ह्रदाः प्रसन्ना इव गूढनक्राः।
वैदर्भमामन्त्र्य ययुस्तदीयाम् प्रत्यर्प्य पूजामुपदाछलेन॥ ७-३०
liṅgairmudaḥ saṁvṛtavikriyāste hradāḥ
prasannā iva gūḍhanakrāḥ |
pratyarpya pūjāmupadāchalena || 7-30
li~NgairmudaH sa.nvR^itavikriyaaste hradaaH
prasannaa iva guuDhanakraaH |
pratyarpya puujaamupadaaChalena || 7-30
li~NgaiH mudaH sa.nvR^ita vikriyaaH te hradaaH prasannaa iva guuDha nakraaH [sthitA] vaidarbham aamantrya yayuH tadiiyaam pratyarpya puujaam upadaaChalena
7-30. mudaH li~NgaiH= smiles, [as an outward] mark - hence with pseudo smiles; sa.nvR^ita vikriyaaH= concealed, change of feeling - wrath; prasannaa= [outwardly] unruffled - lake; guuDha nakraaH= with hidden, alligators; hradaaH iva = lake, as with; [sthitA= those kings who are there]; te= those kings; vaidarbham aamantrya= from king of Vidarbha, taking leave; tadiiyaam puujaam= his - Bhoja's, hospitality by presents and gifts etc; upadaaChalena= by return gifts; pratyarpya= by requiting; yayuH= went away.
As with a lake hiding alligators under its serene sheet of waters, those suitor-princes concealing their irritation with feigned expressions of joy, bade farewell to the Lord of Vidarbha and went away, but only after having requited the worth of honour done to them, in the pretext of wedding presents. [7-30]
The nakra, the alligator, being a very ferocious animal the propriety of the word as a comparison with the sentiments of the princes is very appropriate.
upmAna: hradAH; upameya: rAjanyAH; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : sAdhAraNa
biMba: mudaH li~NgaiH; pratibiMba: prasannaa; ubhayAnvayi : biMba: sa.nvR^itavikriya; pratibiMba: guuDhanakraaH; one thing alone is said in two different words : sa.nvR^ita - gUDha - hence, vastuprativastu bhAva; as such this upama is said to reflect an ordinary thing with bimbapratibiMba bhAva karambita - vastuprativastu bhAva mishraNa.
स राजलोकः कृतपूर्वसंविदारम्भसिद्धौ समयोपलभ्यम्।
आदास्यमानः प्रमदामिषम् तदावृत्य पन्थानमजस्य तस्थौ॥ ७-३१
sa rājalokaḥ kṛtapūrvasaṁvidārambha
siddhau samayopalabhyam |
tadāvṛtya panthānamajasya tasthau || 7-31
sa raajalokaH kR^itapuurvasa.nvidaarambha
siddhau samayopalabhyam |
tadaavR^itya panthaanamajasya tasthau || 7-31
sa raaja lokaH kR^ita puurva sa.nvit aarambha siddhau samaya upalabhyam aadaasyamaanaH pramadaamiSham tat aavR^itya panthaanam ajasya tasthau
7-31. aarambha siddhau= undertaking, for accomplishment; kR^ita puurva= made, earlier - prearranged; sa.nvit= agreement; sa raaja lokaH= that, host of, suitor-kings; samaya upalabhyam= by time [of Aja's return], chanced; tat pramadaamiSham = that, an object of enjoyment, a victim - here Indumati; aadaasyamaanaH= the Future participle of aadaa to seize - to capture; ajasya panthaanam aavR^itya tasthau = Aja's, path, by obstructing, they stood.
The host of suitor-kings who had preconcerted a plan for the accomplishment of capturing their coveted object, in the shape of an enjoyable woman, though not in the process of self-selecting bridegroom, laid seize of path of Aja at the time of his return to native kingdom. [7-31]
सत्त्वानुरूपाहरणीकृतश्रीः प्रास्थापयद्राघवमन्वगाच्च॥ ७-३२
prāsthāpayadrāghavamanvagācca || 7-32
praasthaapayadraaghavamanvagaacca || 7-32
bhartaa api taavat krathakaishikaanaam anuShThita anantara jaa vivaahaH sattva anuruupa aaharaNii kR^ita shriiH praasthaapayat raaghavam anvagaat ca
7-32. anuShThita= having performed; anantara jaa = later, born one - his younger sister; vivaahaH= her marriage; krathakaishikaanaam bhartaa api= of Kritha Kaishika people, the lord of, also; taavat= at that time; sattva anuruupa= appropriate to the magnanimity of his heart; aaharaNii = dAsadAsI jana dhana kanakAdi vastu vAhana sAmagri - certain property given to the bride when sending to in-laws house - not exactly dowry, where dowry is money or property brought by a woman to her husband, and this haraNam - is exclusively the bride's property, which is loosely called dowry that has assumed monstrous custom these days; [aaharaNii ] kR^ita shriiH = having given - such wealthy property to his sister; raaghavam praasthaapayat= Prince Aja, sent off; anvagaat ca= followed him, also.
Meanwhile, completing the marriage ritual of his younger sister and magnanimously presenting bride's wealth to her, Bhoja, the lord of the Krathakaishika-s, not only gave send off to the couple but also convoyed them up to some distance. [7-32]
तिस्रस्त्रिलोकप्रथितेन सार्धमजेन मार्गे वसतीरुषित्वा।
तस्मादपावर्तत कुण्डिनेशः पर्वात्यये सोम इवोष्णरश्मेः॥ ७-३३
ajena mārge vasatīruṣitvā |
parvātyaye soma ivoṣṇaraśmeḥ || 7-33
ajena maarge vasatiiruShitvaa |
parvaatyaye soma ivoShNarashmeH || 7-33
tisraH tri loka prathitena saardham ajena maarge vasatiiH uShitvaa tasmaat apaavartata kuNDina iishaH parvaat yaye soma iva uShNa rashmeH
7-33. kuNDina iishaH= Kundina city's, lord - kuNDina is the capital of vidarbha kingdom; tri loka prathitena ajena= in three, worlds, a renowned one, with such Aja; saardham= along with him; maarge= on way - to Ayodhya; tisraH vasatii uShitvaa= three, nights, having spent - in convoying; parva atyaye= after an auspicious time called - darsha - amAvAsya; uShNa rashmeH= from hot rayed one - the Sun; soma iva= moon, as with; tasmaat= from him - from Aja; apaavartata = returned.
As with the Moon departing from the Sun at the end of their conjunction on any no-moon-day called the auspicious darsha, or amAvAsya, that lord of Kundina city, namely Bhoja, the brother of Indumati, having spent three days and nights in the company of Aja while escorting Aja and his bride in transit, returned to his capital. [7-33]
upmAna: chandra; upameya: kuNDIna raaja; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : returning to his place; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva; biMba: tisraH vasatii uShitvaa; pratibiMba: darsha atyaye; ubhayAnvayi : apAvartanam; hence in this upama there is anugAmitva bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa.
chandra stays almost for three days with suurya -- from kRishna chaturdashii - darsha shukla pratipat, and then returns to his place on vidiya.
Even today this custom of bride's people following the bride when she is sent to her in-laws house, for three days and nights, [Telugu - mUDu nidralu] is being practised.
तमुद्वहन्तम् पथि भोजकन्याम् रुरोध राजन्यगण स दृप्तः।
बलिप्रदिष्टाम् श्रियमाददानम् त्रैविक्रमम् पादमिवेन्द्रशत्रुः॥ ७-३५
tamudvahantam pathi bhojakanyām
rurodha rājanyagaṇa sa dṛptaḥ |
traivikramam pādamivendraśatruḥ || 7-35
tamudvahantam pathi bhojakanyaam
rurodha raajanyagaNa sa dR^iptaH |
traivikramam paadamivendrashatruH || 7-35
tam udvahantam pathi bhoja kanyaam rurodha raajanya gaNa sa dR^iptaH bali pradiShTaam shriyam aadadaanam traivikramam paadam iva indra shatruH
7-35. dR^iptaH sa raajanya gaNa= conceited, that, kings', group - confederacy; bhoja kanyaam udvahantam tam= Bhoja's, princess, he who is taking with him, him; bali pradiShTaam shriyam aadadaanam= by Emperor Bali, given, wealth, while taking - vAmana; traivikramam paadam= trivikrama's, foot; indra shatruH iva= Indra's, enemy, as with; pathi rurodha = way, ambushed.
As with prahlAda, the enemy of Indra, who intercepted the third foot of trivikrama when it is encroaching heavens while accepting the sanctions from Emperor bali, that clique of suitor-kings intercepted Prince Aja when he is taking the Princess of Bhoja dynasty with him to his city. [7-35]
Some commentators take indra-shatru to be vrR^trAsura, others namuchi while Mallinatha takes him to be prahlAda, as said in brahmANDa purANa : virochana virodhe.api prahlAda prAktanam smaran.... etc
upmAna: prahlAda; upameya: rAjanya gaNAH; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam :
pathi rurodha ; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: iva;
biMba: bhoja datta kanyaam udvahantam; pratibiMba: bali pradiShTaam shriyam aadadaanam; bhayAnvayi : pathi rurodha; sAdRishyam: trivikrama pAdam-aja; bhoja datta kanya - bali pradiShTa shrii; anugAmitva bimbapratibiMba bhAva mishraNa
तस्याः स रक्षार्थमनल्पयोधमादिश्य पित्र्यम् सचिवम् कुमारः।
प्रत्यग्रहीत्पार्थिववाहिनीम् ताम् भागीरथीम् शोण इवोत्तरङ्गः॥ ७-३६
tasyāḥ sa rakṣārthamanalpayodhamādiśya
pitryam sacivam kumāraḥ |
bhāgīrathīm śoṇa ivottaraṅgaḥ || 7-36
tasyaaH sa rakShaarthamanalpayodhamaadishya
pitryam sacivam kumaaraH |
bhaagiirathiim shoNa ivottara~NgaH || 7-36
tasyaaH sa rakShaartham analpayodham aadishya pitryam sacivam kumaaraH pratyagrahiit paarthiva vaahiniim taam bhaagiirathiim shoNa iva uttara~NgaH
7-36. saH kumaaraH= that, prince Aja; tasyaaH rakShaartham= her, to safeguard; an+alpa+yodham= not, with less, soldiers = one who has many soldiers in his retinue; pitryam sacivam= father's, minister - a fatherly gentleman; aadishya= on ordering; taam paarthiva vaahiniim= that, of coterie of kings, army; bhaagiirathiim= River Ganga; ut+tara~NgaH shoNa iva= with high tides, River shoNa, as with; pratyagrahiit = received in hostile spirit.
As with River Ganga receiving River shoNa with gushing spates, Prince Aja received the army of coterie of kings in a hostile spirit after entrusting the safety of his wife Indumati to a fatherly minister of his father whose retinue has got numerous soldiers. [7-36]
पत्तिः पदातिम् रथिनम् रथेशस्तुरंगसादी तुरगाधिरूढम्।
यन्ता गजस्याभ्यपतद्गजस्थम् तुल्यप्रतिद्वन्द्वि बभूव युद्धम्॥ ७-३७
pattiḥ padātim rathinam ratheśas
turaṁgasādī turagādhirūḍham |
tulyapratidvandvi babhūva yuddham || 7-37
pattiH padaatim rathinam ratheshas
tura.ngasaadii turagaadhiruuDham |
tulyapratidvandvi babhuuva yuddham || 7-37
pattiH padaatim rathinam ratha iishaH tura.nga saadii turaga adhiruuDham yantaa gajasya abhyapatat gajastham tulya pratidvandvi babhuuva yuddham
7-37. pattiH padaatim abhyapatat= footsoldier, on a footsoldier, charged; ratha iishaH rathinam abhyapatat= chariot-warrior, on a chariot-warrior, attacked; tura.nga saadii turaga adhiruuDham = cavalryman, on a cavalryman, charged; gajasya yantaa gajastham abhyapatat= an elephant-rider, on an elephant rider, attacked; [ittham= in this way] yuddham tulya pratidvandvi babhuuva = the fight, between equally matched, opponents, commenced.
The footsoldiers charging footsoldiers, chariot-warriors attacking chariot-warriors, cavalrymen aggressing on cavalrymen, elephantary assailing elephantary, there started a battle between equally matching opponents. [7-37]
Works describing combats and military operations enjoin that the antagonists must be equally armed as well as equally mounted etc. In fact they must be matched, in every way. The word elephantary is a concoct as in military, to avoid boring typing as - a fleet of elephant-force driven by mahouts [where mahout has no English equalant, who is defined as meaning= n. (in the Indian subcontinent) an elephant driver or elephant keeper]; so, elephantary is all this plus ary2 - suffix - forming adjectives (military). [French -aire or from Latin -aris ‘belonging to’]
नदत्सु तूर्येष्वविभाव्यवाचो नोदीरयन्ति स्म कुलोपदेशान्।
बाणाक्षरैरेव परस्परस्य नामोर्जितम् चापभृतः शशंसुः॥ ७-३८
nodīrayanti sma kulopadeśān |
nāmorjitam cāpabhṛtaḥ śaśaṁsuḥ || 7-38
nodiirayanti sma kulopadeshaan |
naamorjitam caapabhR^itaH shasha.nsuH || 7-38
nadatsu tuuryeShu a+vi+bhaavya vaacaH na udiirayanti sma kula upadeshaan baaNa akSharaiH eva parasparasya naama urjitam caapa bhR^itaH shasha.nsuH
7-38. tuuryeShu nadatsu = while trumpets, are blaring; a+vi+bhaavya vaacaH= inaudible, are voices; kula upadeshaan= about their dynasties; na udiirayanti sma= [bowmen are] not, voicing, they are; baaNa akSharaiH eva= by arrow, letters [names of bowmen engraved on arrows], only; parasparasya urjitam naama= one another's, glorious, names; caapa bhR^itaH shasha.nsuH= bowmen, came to know.
In the blare of martial trumpets nothing is audible; bowmen on each side should distinguish themselves before releasing arrows by proclaiming their names and dynastic history; though they seemed to be not uttering such watchwords jangle, their glorious names are made known through the letters graven on the arrows released on the other party. [7-38]
उत्थापितः संयति रेणुरश्वैः सान्द्रीकृतः स्यन्दनवंशचक्रैः।
विस्तारितः कुञ्जरकर्णतालैर्नेत्रक्रमेणोपरुरोध सूर्यम्॥ ७-३९
utthāpitaḥ saṁyati reṇuraśvaiḥ
sāndrīkṛtaḥ syandanavaṁśacakraiḥ |
netrakrameṇoparurodha sūryam || 7-39
utthaapitaH sa.nyati reNurashvaiH
saandriikR^itaH syandanava.nshacakraiH |
netrakrameNoparurodha suuryam || 7-39
utthaapitaH sa.nyati reNuH ashvaiH saandrii kR^itaH syandana va.nsha cakraiH vistaaritaH ku~njara karNa taalaiH netra krameNa uparurodha suuryam
7-39. sa.nyati= in war; ashvaiH utthaapitaH= by horses, upheaved; syandana va.nsha cakraiH= chariots, group, by wheels; saandrii kR^itaH= made thicker; ku~njara karNa taalaiH vistaaritaH= by elephants, ear, flapping, spread; reNuH= dust; netra= silk cloth - netra has many meanings; krameNa= in the model of; suuryam uparurodha= sun, [dust has] covered.
Horses upheaving it; chariots condensing it; flapping ears of elephants spreading it, the dust on the warfield rose up draping the Sun as if with a silken awning. [7-39]
upmAna: vastram; upameya: senA reNu; sAdhAraNa / anugAmi dharmam : aachaadana; sAdhAraNa vAcakam: krameNa.
मत्स्यध्वजा वायुवशाद्विदीर्णैर्मुखैः प्रवृद्धध्वजिनीरजांसि।
बभुः पिबन्तः परमार्थमत्स्याः पर्याविलानीव नवोदकानि॥ ७-४०
matsyadhvajā vāyuvaśādvidīrṇairmukhaiḥ pravṛddhadhvajinīrajāṁsi |
babhuḥ pibantaḥ paramārthamatsyāḥ
paryāvilānīva navodakāni || 7-40
mukhaiH pravR^iddhadhvajiniirajaa.nsi |
babhuH pibantaH paramaarthamatsyaaH
paryaavilaaniiva navodakaani || 7-40
matsya dhvajaa vaayu vashaat vidiirNaiH mukhaiH pravR^iddha dhvajinii rajaa.nsi babhuH pibantaH paramaartha matsyaaH paryaa vilaani iva nava udakaani
7-40. vaayu vashaat= by air's, control - the ablative form of vasha is used adverbially in the sense of 'through the influence of' 'through the force of '; vidiirNaiH mukhaiH= with agape, mouths; pravR^iddha dhvajinii rajaa.nsi= upshot, those that are fraught with flags and banners - armies, their dust; pibantaH matsya dhvajaaH= by drinking [such dusty air], fish-shaped pennons; parya avilaani= all round, muddy - waters; nava udakaani= new waters; pibantaH= drinking; paramaartha matsyaaH iva babhuH= real, fish, like, shone forth.
The mouths of fish-shaped banderoles opening their cleft ends wide owing to the force of wind, as if to swallow the dust raised in the battle, looked more like real fish swallowing turbid waters occassioned from new rains. [7-40]
रथो रथाङ्गध्वनिना विजज्ञे विलोलघण्टाक्वणितेन नागः।
स्वभर्तुनामग्रहणाद्बभूव सान्द्रे रजस्यात्मपरावबोधः॥ ७-४१
ratho rathāṅgadhvaninā vijajñe
vilolaghaṇṭākvaṇitena nāgaḥ |
sāndre rajasyātmaparāvabodhaḥ || 7-41
ratho rathaa~Ngadhvaninaa vijaj~ne
vilolaghaNTaakvaNitena naagaH |
saandre rajasyaatmaparaavabodhaH || 7-41
rathaH rath aa~Nga dhvaninaa vijaj~ne vilola ghaNTaa kvaNitena naagaH sva bhartu naama grahaNaat babhuuva saandre rajasi aatma para avabodhaH
7-41. saandre rajasi= in the thick, of dust; rathaH ratha-a~Nga dhvaninaa vijaj~ne= a chariot, [by another] chariot's, wheel's, rattle, is made known; naagaH vilola ghaNTaa kvaNitena vijaj~ne= an elephant. [by another elephant's] bell's, clanging, is made known; aatma para avabodhaH= [a soldier of ] this side, [or soldier of] other side, cognition; sva bhartu naama grahaNaat= one's, own lord's, name, on taking - is made known; babhuuva = it has become so - on battlefield.
In that thick of dust a chariot is cognisable only by the rattle of its wheel, an elephant by its clanging bells, a friend or foe by the shouts of soldiers taking their master's name or his watch-word. [7-41]
The elephants have generally two bells suspended by a band on their back which make rhythmical alternate sounds at each step.
आवृण्वतो लोचनमार्गमाजौ रजोन्धकारस्य विजृम्भितस्य।
शस्त्रक्षताश्वद्वीपवीरजन्मा बालारुणोऽभूद्रुधिरप्रवाहः॥ ७-४२
rajondhakārasya vijṛmbhitasya |
bālāruṇo'bhūdrudhirapravāhaḥ || 7-42
rajondhakaarasya vijR^imbhitasya |
baalaaruNo.abhuudrudhirapravaahaH || 7-42
aavR^iNvataH locana maargam aajau rajaH andhakaarasya vijR^imbhitasya shastra kShata ashva dviipa viira janmaa baala aruNaH abhuut rudhira pravaahaH ||
7-42. locana maargam aavR^iNvataH= eye-sight, path, covering - blinding; aajau= on battlefield; vijR^imbhitasya = that which is shot up; rajaH andhakaarasya= for that dust-darkness; shastra kShata= weapon wounded; ashva dviipa viira= from horses, elephants, soldiers; janmaa= emanated from; rudhira pravaahaH= blood streams; baala aruNaH abhuut = [like][ tender sun, [those blood streams] became.
The bloodstreams emanating from the weapon wounds of horses, elephants and soldiers looked more like the tender Sun blood red in colour, as if gushed to dispel the blinding darkness of the dust storm raised on that battlefield. [7-42]
This is samuchita rUpaka; rajondhakaaram = blinding darkness; rakta pravAham = bAla bhAnu - is the rUpaNa.
स च्छिन्नमूलः क्षतजेन रेणुस्तस्योपरिष्टात्पवनापधूतः।
अङ्गारशेषस्य हुताशनस्य पूर्वोत्थितो धूम इवाबभासे॥ ७-४३
sa cchinnamūlaḥ kṣatajena reṇus
pūrvotthito dhūma ivābabhāse || 7-43
sa cChinnamuulaH kShatajena reNus
puurvotthito dhuuma ivaababhaase || 7-43
sa cChinna muulaH kShatajena reNuH tasya upariShTaat pavana apadhuutaH a~Ngaara sheShasya hutaashanasya puurva utthitaH dhuuma iva ababhaase ||
7-43. kShatajena cChinna muulaH= by blood, cut off, having its base - of column of dust; tasya upariShTaat pavana apadhuutaH= on its, upper end, by wind, tossed about; sa reNuH= that, [column of] dust; a~Ngaara sheShasya hutaashanasya= as embers, remained, of fire [once blazing]; puurva utthitaH dhuuma iva= earlier, risen, smoke, as with; ababhaase= shone forth.
With its base cut off from the bloodwet battlefield, the wind tossing its towering end, that column of war-dust appeared as a column of smoke once rose up from blazing fire but now disjointed from fire, for that fire is now rendered as embers. [7-43]
Some say the alankAram : utprekSha, while others note it as sva vaichitryamAtra vishrAnta upama.
प्रहारमूर्च्छापगमे रथस्था यन्तॄनुपालभ्य निवर्तिताश्वान्।
यैः सादिता लक्षितपूर्वकेतूंस्तानेव सामर्षतया निजघ्नुः॥ ७-४४
yantṝnupālabhya nivartitāśvān |
yaiḥ sāditā lakṣitapūrvaketūṁs
tāneva sāmarṣatayā nijaghnuḥ || 7-44
yantR^Inupaalabhya nivartitaashvaan |
yaiH saaditaa lakShitapuurvaketuu.ns
taaneva saamarShatayaa nijaghnuH || 7-44
prahaara muurcCha apagame rathasthaa yantR^In upaalabhya nivartita ashvaan yaiH saaditaa lakShita puurva ketuun taan eva sa amarShatayaa nijaghnuH
7-44. rathasthaaH= chariot-warriors; prahaara muurcCha apagame= assault, swoon, when relieved from; nivartita ashvaan= those that have retraced, horses [of chariots]; yantR^In upaalabhya= such charioteers, on rebuking [for taking U-turn when assaulted]; yaiH saaditaa= by whom, [earlier] assaulted; lakShita puurva ketuun= now recognised by their banners that have been observed at the first encounter; taan eva= them, alone; sa amarShatayaa nijaghnuH= with, ferociousness, [now] assaulted.
When the fainting caused by an assault is over, the chariot-warriors, on severely rebuking charioteers for retruding the chariots when the assault-oriented swoon had occurred, have now returned to battlefield only to attack those very antagonists more furiously, by whom they had been wounded and whom they now identified by their banners observed at the first encounter. [7-44]
अप्यर्धमार्गे परबाणलूना धनुर्भृताम् हस्तवताम् पृषत्काः।
संप्रापुरेवात्मजवानुवृत्त्या पूर्वार्धभागैः फलिभिः शरव्यम्॥ ७-४५
apyardhamārge parabāṇalūnā dhanurbhṛtām
hastavatām pṛṣatkāḥ |
pūrvārdhabhāgaiḥ phalibhiḥ śaravyam || 7-45
apyardhamaarge parabaaNaluunaa dhanurbhR^itaam
hastavataam pR^iShatkaaH |
puurvaardhabhaagaiH phalibhiH sharavyam || 7-45
api ardha maarge para baaNa luunaa dhanur bhR^itaam hasta vataam pR^iShatkaaH sa.npraapuH eva atma java anuvR^ittyaa puurvaardha bhaagaiH phalibhiH sharavyam
7-45. ardha maarge= somewhere during their course, not exactly half-way; para baaNa luunaa= by enemy's, arrow, in twain; api= although, yet; hasta-vataam= dhanur bhR^itaam= of deft, archers; pR^iShatkaaH= arrows; atma java anuvR^ittyaa= by their own, velocity - continuation of the force of their initial velocity, following; phalibhiH= blades - heads; puurvaardha bhaagaiH= with foreparts, arrowheads; sharavyam= on which an archer has to shoot his arrow - targets; sa.npraapuH eva = reached, thus.
The arrows volleyed from either side rived one another in twain during propulsion, yet their barbed fore-halves reached targets maintaining the initial force of velocity, owing to the deftness of archers on both the sides. [7-45]
आधोरणानाम् गजसंनिपाते शिरांसि चक्रैर्निशितैः क्षुराग्रैः।
हतान्यपि श्येननखाग्रकोटिव्यासक्तकेशानि चिरेण पेतुः॥ ७-४६
śirāṁsi cakrairniśitaiḥ kṣurāgraiḥ |
vyāsaktakeśāni cireṇa petuḥ || 7-46
shiraa.nsi chakrairnishitaiH kShuraagraiH |
vyaasaktakeshaani chireNa petuH || 7-46
aadhoraNaanaam gaja sa.nnipaate shiraa.nsi chakraiH nishitaiH kShura agraiH hR^itaani api shyena nakha agra koTi vyaasakta keshaani chireNa petuH
7-46. gaja sa.nnipaate= in elephant-fight; nishitaiH kShura agraiH chakraiH= sharp, razor-like, edged, by quoits; hR^itaani api= taken away - cut off, even though; shyena nakha agra-koTi vyaasakta keshaan= of hawks, claws, in pointed extremities; shiraa.nsi aadhoraNaanaam= heads, of elephant-riders; chireNa petuH = after some time, fell down.
The heads of combatants fighting in elephantary, though cut off with quoits having razor sharp edges, have not fallen to ground instantly, for the head-hair is entangled in the pointed talons of hawks hovering atop, in their one fell swoop. [7-46]
पूर्वम् प्रहर्ता न जघान भूयः प्रतिप्रहाराक्षममश्वसादी।
तुरंगमस्कन्धनिषण्णदेहम् प्रत्याश्वसन्तम् रिपुमाचकाङ्क्ष॥ ७-४७
pūrvam prahartā na jaghāna bhūyaḥ
pratyāśvasantam ripumācakāṅkṣa || 7-47
puurvam prahartaa na jaghaana bhuuyaH pratiprahaaraakShamamashvasaadii |
pratyaashvasantam ripumaacakaa~NkSha || 7-47
puurvam prahartaa na jaghaana bhuuyaH prati-prahaara a+kShamam ashva-saadii tura.ngama skandha niShaNNa deham prati aa-shvasantam ripum aacakaa~NkSha
7-47. puurvam prahartaa ashva-saadii= first assaulter, cavalryman; prati-prahaara a+kShamam= to fight back, incapable of - enemy cavalryman who after receiving assault; tura.ngama skandha niShaNNa deham= on horse's, neck, dropped down, with body - assaulted cavalryman; ripum= enemy cavalryman; bhuuyaH= again; na jaghaana= not, striking; [ki.mtu= but] prati aa-shvasantam= again, to be breathing - to live somehow; aacakaa~NkSha= [first assaulter] wished to.
When a cavalryman becomes the first assaulter, he without giving a second assault on the assaulted enemy cavalryman who by now has become incapable of fighting back fell prone on his horse's neck, is drawing ahead wishing him to somehow retain breath. [7-47]
तनुत्यजाम् वर्मभृताम् विकोशैबृहत्सु दन्तेष्वसिभिः पतद्भिः।
उद्यन्तमग्निम् शमयांबभूवुर्गजा विविग्नाः करशीकरेण॥ ७-४८
tanutyajām varmabhṛtām vikośaibṛhatsu
danteṣvasibhiḥ patadbhiḥ |
vivignāḥ karaśīkareṇa || 7-48
tanutyajaam varmabhR^itaam vikoshaibR^ihatsu
danteShvasibhiH patadbhiH |
vivignaaH karashiikareNa || 7-48
tanu tyajaam varma bhR^itaam vi-koshai bR^ihatsu danteShu asibhiH patadbhiH udyantam agnim shamayaa.n babhuuvuH gajaa vivignaaH kara shiikareNa
7-48. tanu tyajaam= lit., abandoning their bodies, but here it means ready to give up their bodies, fighting regardless of their bodies; varma bhR^itaam= armour, clad in - of soldiers; bR^ihatsu danteShu patadbhiH= on huge, tusks, falling - striking; vi-koshai asibhiH= of unsheathed, swords; udyantam agnim= arising, fire; vivignaaH gajaaH= terrified, elephants; kara shiikareNa= with trunk's, cool spray; shamayaa.n babhuuvuH= cool off, they started to.
Armour-clad soldiers unheedful of their bodies are hitting the huge tusks of elephants hard with naked swords, while the elephants panicked at the fire generated by the friction of tusks and swords are cooling it off with the moisture available in their trunks. [7-48]
शिलीमुखोत्कृत्तशिरःफलाढ्या च्युतैः शिरस्त्रैश्चषकोत्तरेव।
रणक्षितिः शोणितमद्यकुल्या रराज मृत्योरिव पानभूमिः॥ ७-४९
cyutaiḥ śirastraiścaṣakottareva |
rarāja mṛtyoriva pānabhūmiḥ || 7-49
chyutaiH shirastraishcaShakottareva |
raraaja mR^ityoriva paanabhuumiH || 7-49
shilii-mukha utkR^itta shiraH phala aaDhyaa chyutaiH shirastraiH caShakottara iva raNa kShitiH shoNita madya kulyaa raraaja mR^ityoH iva paanabhuumiH
7-49. shilii-mukha utkR^itta= by barb-headed ones - by arrows, cut off; shiraH phala aaDhyaa= with heads, called fruits, full with; chyutaiH shirastraiH= with fallen, helmets of soldiers; caShakottara iva= goblets, as if; shoNita madya kulyaa= blood, called wine, rivulets; raNa kShitiH= battlefield; mR^ityoH paanabhuumiH iva raraaja = Death's, wassail-ground, as if, shone forth.
With numerous arrow-severed heads looking like clusters of fruits, inverted helmets of soldiers like wine cups, bloodstreams like wine-chutes, that battlefield shone forth like a wassail ground of the Lord of Death. [7-49]
Like Death's banquet-hall / Showed that dread field, with dead men's skulls for fruit, / For beakers fallen helmets, blood for wine.
उपान्तयोर्निष्कुषितम् विहंगैराक्षिप्य तेभ्यः पिशितप्रियापि।
केयूरकोटिक्षततालुदेशा शिवा भुजच्छेदमपाचकार॥ ७-५०
ākṣipya tebhyaḥ piśitapriyāpi |
bhujacchedamapācakāra || 7-50
aakShipya tebhyaH pishitapriyaapi |
bhujacChedamapaacakaara || 7-50
upaantayoH niShkuShitam viha.ngaiH aakShipya tebhyaH pishita priyaa api keyuura koTi kShata taalu deshaa shivaa bhuja cChedam apaacakaara
7-50. upaantayoH viha.ngaiH niShkuShitam= at both ends, by birds, torn [from dead body]; bhuja cChedam= an arm, a piece of; tebhyaH= from them - from birds; aakShipya= on snatching; pishita priyaa api= flesh, eating, one which is interested in, even though; shivaa= a she-jackal; keyuura koTi kShata taalu deshaa= by armlet, edge of, punctured, roof of palate, area; apa-acakaara = to sideways, made - left that piece of arm to go uneaten.
Certain vultures tearing a piece of arm of a dead soldier at both ends started to nimble it; but a she-jackal snatched it from them and gulped greedily; whereby the armlet adorned that arm has wounded her palate, whereby that jackal had to abandon that piece of flesh, though she is very fond of flesh. [7-50]
कश्चिद्विषत्खड्गहृतोत्तमाङ्गः सद्यो विमानप्रभुतामुपेत्य।
वामाङ्गसंसक्तसुराङ्गनः स्वम् नृत्यत्कबन्धम् समरे ददर्श॥ ७-५१
sadyo vimānaprabhutāmupetya |
nṛtyatkabandham samare dadarśa || 7-51
sadyo vimaanaprabhutaamupetya |
nR^ityatkabandham samare dadarsha || 7-51
kashcit dviShat khaDga hR^ita uttama a~NgaH sadyaH vimaana prabhutaam upetya vaamaa~Nga sa.nsakta suraa~NganaH svam nR^ityat kabandham samare dadarsha
7-51. dviShat khaDga hR^ita uttama a~NgaH= by enemy's, sword, cut-off, best, body part - head; kashcit= someone a soldier; sadyaH vimaana prabhutaam upetya= immediately, on a divine aircraft, lordship, on acquiring; vaamaa~Nga sa.nsakta suraa~NganaH= on left side, clinging, a heavenly damsel - having such damsel on aircraft; samare nR^ityat svam kabandham dadarsha = on battlefield, dancing, his own, trunk, he has seen.
A soldier acquired lordship on a heavenly aircraft immediately when his adversary cut off his head; sitting on it with a divine damsel clinging to his left side; he beheld his own headless trunk dancing about on the battle-field. [7-51]
Where a foeman's sword / Had cut the neck, straight to his Heavenly car / The warrior rose, and clasped his bride divine, / While still his lifeless trunk danced on the plain.
It was a general notion among the ancients of this country that whosoever fell on the battle-field was conveyed by the gods in an aerial car to heaven and was there sought after by the divya-kanyA-s, nymphs
अन्योन्यसूतोन्मथनादभूताम् तावेव सूतौ रथिनौ च कौचित्।
व्यश्वौ गदाव्यायतसंप्रहारौ भग्नायुधौ बाहुविमर्दनिष्ठौ॥ ७-५२
tāveva sūtau rathinau ca kaucit |
bhagnāyudhau bāhuvimardaniṣṭhau || 7-52
taaveva suutau rathinau ca kaucit |
bhagnaayudhau baahuvimardaniShThau || 7-52
anyonya suuta unmathanaat abhuutaam tau eva suutau rathinau ca kaucit vyashvau gadaa vyaayata sa.nprahaarau bhagna aayudhau baahu vimarda niShThau
7-52. kaucit= some two - chariot-warriors; anyonya suuta unmathanaat= mutually, charioteers, on killing; tau eva suutau rathinau ca= they two, charioteers, chariot-warriors, as well; abhuutaam = they became; vyashvau= horses being slain; gadaa vyaayata sa.nprahaarau= with clubs, they prolonged, the fight; bhagna aayudhau= clubs, being broken; baahu vimarda= hand to hand fight, they started; niShThau = [ultimately] they both fell dead.
When two chariot-warriors mutually slew their charioteers, they have become charioteers and fighters as well; when they mutually slew even their horses, they prolonged the fight as mace-fighters; when they mutually broke their clubs, they still prolonged the fight as pugilistic fighters, who ultimately fell dead on field in their unceasing fight. [7-52]
परस्परेण क्षतयोः प्रहर्त्रोरुत्क्रान्तवाय्वोः समकालमेव।
अमर्त्यभावेऽपि कयोश्चिदासीदेकाप्सरःप्रार्थितयोर्विवादः॥ ७-५३
paraspareṇa kṣatayoḥ prahartror
utkrāntavāyvoḥ samakālameva |
ekāpsaraḥprārthitayorvivādaḥ || 7-53
paraspareNa kShatayoH prahartror
utkraantavaayvoH samakaalameva |
ekaapsaraHpraarthitayorvivaadaH || 7-53
paraspareNa kShatayoH prahartroH utkraanta vaayvoH sama kaalameva amartyabhaave api kayoshcit aasiit eka apsaraH praarthitayoH vivaadaH
7-53. paraspareNa kShatayoH= mutually, slaying each other; sama kaalam eva utkraanta vaayvoH= at the same time, exited, life-breaths - of two warriors; eka apsaraH praarthitayoH= one, divine damsel, wooing; kayoshcit prahartroH= certain, pair of warriors; amartyabhaave vivaadaH api aasiit = [even] in immortal condition, their quarrel, even, is there - continued.
Slaying each other at the same time, a pair of warriors breathed last at the same time; reaching heaven at the same time, they wooed a heavenly damsel at the same time; thus their quarrel continued at the same time, in spite of their being immortal. [7-53]
व्यूहावुभौ तावितरेतरस्माद्भङ्गम् जयम् चापतुरव्यवस्थम्।
पश्चात्पुरोमारुतयोः प्रवृद्धौ पर्यायवृत्येव महार्णवोर्मी॥ ७-५४
jayam cāpaturavyavastham |
paryāyavṛtyeva mahārṇavormī || 7-54
jayam caapaturavyavastham |
paryaayavR^ityeva mahaarNavormii || 7-54
vyuuhau ubhau tau itaretarasmaat bha~Ngam jayam ca apatuH avyavastham pashcaat puraH maarutayoH pravR^iddhau paryaaya vR^itya iva mahaa arNava uurmii
7-54. tau ubhau vyuuhau= those, two, armies; pashcaat puraH maarutayoH= back, front, winds - when wind is wafting back and forth; paryaaya vR^itya= by rhythmic motion - of wind; pravR^iddhau= one that is swelling - ocean; mahaa arNava uurmii iva= great, ocean's, tides, as with; itaretarasmaat= one by the other; avyavastham= unstable; bha~Ngam jayam ca apatuH= defeat, victory, also, they got.
Both the arrayed armies gained from each other undecided defeat and victory just like two tide rips of the mighty ocean propelled and repelled in turn by winds blowing back and forth. [7-54]
Now conquering, now defeated, swayed the hosts / Like Ocean's waves, that winds drive to and fro,
परेण भग्नेऽपि बले महौजा ययावजः प्रत्यरिसैन्यमेव।
धूमो निवर्त्येत समीरणेन यतस्तु कक्षस्तत एव वह्निः॥ ७-५५
pareṇa bhagne'pi bale mahaujā
yayāvajaḥ pratyarisainyameva |
dhūmo nivartyeta samīraṇena
yatastu kakṣastata eva vahniḥ || 7-55
pareNa bhagne.api bale mahaujaa
yayaavajaH pratyarisainyameva |
dhuumo nivartyeta samiiraNena
yatastu kakShastata eva vahniH || 7-55
pareNa bhagne api bale mahaujaa yayau ajaH prati ari sainyam eva dhuumaH nivartyeta samiiraNena yataH tu kakShaH tataH eva vahniH
7-55. bale pareNa bhagne api= forces, by adversary, discomfited, though; mahaujaa ajaH= valiant, Aja; ari sainyam prati eva yayau= enemy's, army, towards, only, charged; samiiraNena dhuumaH nivartyeta= by wind, smoke, maybe diverted; vahniH tu= fire, but; yataH kakShaH tataH eva= where, grass is there, there, alone - blazes.
Though his army is discomfited by the enemy, still the valiant Aja charged the hostile force. Wind may toss and turn the smoke but fire remains constant wherever there is dry grass. [7-55]
रथी निषङ्गी कवची धनुष्मान्दृप्तः स राजन्यकमेकवीरः।
निवारयामास महावराहः कल्पक्षयोद्वृत्तमिवार्णवाम्भः॥ ७-५६
rathī niṣaṅgī kavacī dhanuṣmāndṛptaḥ
sa rājanyakamekavīraḥ |
kalpakṣayodvṛttamivārṇavāmbhaḥ || 7-56
rathii niSha~Ngii kavacii dhanuShmaan dR^iptaH sa raajanyakam ekaviiraH nivaarayaamaasa mahaa varaahaH kalpa kShayod vR^ittam iva arNava ambhaH
7-56. rathii niSha~Ngii kavacii dhanuShmaan = seated in chariot, one with quiver, clad in armour, wielding bow in hand; dR^iptaH= raNa garvita= valiant one; ekaviiraH= matchless one; saH= he that Aja; raajanyakam= a collection or body of warriors; mahaavaraahaH= great wild boar - Vishnu; kalpa kShayot vR^ittam= day [ of Brahma], at the end, upsurge; arNava ambhaH iva= ocean's, waters, as with; nivaarayaamaasa = started to ward off.
That matchless and high spirited hero seated in a chariot, with a quiver on his back, clad in an armour, wielding a bow in hand repelled the body of warriors, just as the powerful boar dashed back the waters of the ocean overflowing their bounds at the time of end of an era. [7-56]
Please see Joglekar's detailed notes on this.
स दक्षिणम् तूणमुखेन वामम् व्यापारयन्हस्तमलक्ष्यताजौ।
आकर्णकृष्टा सकृदस्य योद्धुर्मौर्वीव बाणान्सुषुवे रिपुघ्नान्॥ ७-५७
sa dakṣiṇam tūṇamukhena vāmam
ākarṇakṛṣṭā sakṛdasya yoddhur
maurvīva bāṇānsuṣuve ripughnān || 7-57
sa dakShiNam tuuNa mukhena vaamam vyaapaarayan hastam alakShyata ajau aakarNa kR^iShTaa sakR^id asya yoddhuH maurvii iva baaNaan suShuve ripu-ghnaan
7-57. saH ajau= he, that Aja; dakShiNam hastam tuuNa mukhena vaamam vyaapaarayan= right, hand, on the mouth, of quiver, skilfully, moving; alakShyata= is seen - by adversaries; sakR^it= occasionally; aakarNa kR^iShTaa= up to ear, stretched - bowstring is also observed; yoddhuH asya maurvii= archer, his, bowstring - of Aja; ripu-ghnaan baaNaan suShuve iva= enemy-destroying, arrows, birthing, as if - observed.
In the combat, noticed is the right hand of Prince Aja gracefully moving about the mouth of quiver, but unnoticed is his drawing arrows therefrom, or stringing them, or their triggering; yet, noticed is the stretch of bowstring up to his ear, and the unending parturition of enemy-destroying arrows therefrom. [7-57]
While engaged in contest Prince Aja is seen gracefully moving his hand only about the mouth of the quiver: the bow-string of the warrior once stretched up to his ear gave forth, as it were, arrows capable of destroying his enemies. - Joglekar
The prince was seen in the battle beautifully moving his right hand about the mouth of the quiver (so great was his agility) but it seemed that the warrior’s bow-string drawn up to his ear at once produced as it were arrows destructive to his enemies. - Nandargikar
This expression has close resemblance to Rama’s archery while combating with Khara, Dushana et al demons in Janasthana. The word used in verse for bowstring is maurvI – in feminine; hence release of arrows is compared to parturition.
स रोषदष्टाधिकलोहितोष्ठैर्व्यक्तोर्ध्वरेखा भृकुटीर्वहद्भिः।
तस्तार गाम् भल्लनिकृत्तकण्ठैर्हूंकारगर्भैर्द्विषताम् शिरोभिः॥ ७-५८
dhvarekhā bhṛkuṭīrvahadbhiḥ |
tastāra gām bhallanikṛttakaṇṭhair
hūṁkāragarbhairdviṣatām śirobhiḥ || 7-58
dhvarekhaa bhR^ikuTiirvahadbhiH |
tastaara gaam bhallanikR^ittakaNThair
huu.nkaaragarbhairdviShataam shirobhiH || 7-58
sa roSha daShTa adhika lohita oShThaiH vyakta uurdhva rekhaa bhR^ikuTiiH vahadbhiH tastaara gaam bhalla nikR^itta kaNThaiH huu.n-kaara garbhaiH dviShataam shirobhiH
7-58. saH= he, Aja; roSha daShTa adhika lohita oShThaiH= in anger, by biting, much, reddened, lips – having such faces of adversaries; vyakta uurdhva rekhaa bhR^ikuTiiH= clearly seen, vertical lines on foreheads, by knitting eyebrows; vahadbhiH= [heads] bearing such faces; bhalla nikR^itta kaNThaiH= by crescent-shaped arrows, severed [heads], at the necks; huu.n-kaara garbhaiH= [which heads] had still the sound of defiance ‘hum’ in them; dviShataam shirobhiH= adversaries, heads; gaam tastaara = earth, he spread.
Severing the heads of adversaries with crescent shaped arrows Prince Aja spread the ground with them; even then, those heads bore the marks of antagonism like reddened lips on biting them deep in rage, vertical wrinkles and crow-feet on knitting eyebrows, and the faces of fallen heads still seemed to make the sounds of ‘hum’ in defiance. [7-58]
सर्वैर्बलाङ्गैर्द्विरदप्रधानैः सर्वायुधैः कङ्कटभेदिभिश्च।
सर्वप्रयत्नेन च भूमिपालास्तस्मिन्प्रजह्रुर्युधि सर्व एव॥ ७-५९
sarvāyudhaiḥ kaṅkaṭabhedibhiśca |
sarvaprayatnena ca bhūmipālās
tasminprajahruryudhi sarva eva || 7-59
sarvaayudhaiH ka~NkaTabhedibhishca |
sarvaprayatnena ca bhuumipaalaas
tasminprajahruryudhi sarva eva || 7-59
sarvaiH bala a~NgaiH dvirada pradhaanaiH sarva aayudhaiH ka~NkaTa bhedibhiH ca sarva prayatnena ca bhuumipaalaaH tasmin prajahruH yudhi sarva eva
7-59. dvirada pradhaanaiH sarvaiH bala a~NgaiH= elephants, being the main, with all, forces, components – with all the component forces where the elephant-force is primary; ka~NkaTa bhedibhiH sarva aayudhaiH ca= armour, piercing, with all, weapons; sarva prayatnena ca= with all, efforts, also - by hook or by crook; sarva eva bhuumipaalaaH= all, of the kings in confederacy; yudhi= in war; tasmin = him – Aja – this saptamyanta ‘tasmin’ is used in the meaning of dvitIya vibhakti; prajahruH = verily assaulted – Aja.
That league of kings has verily assaulted Prince Aja in that combat using various components of their forces where the elephantary is the main, using all weapons capable of rending even armours, and even using by hook or by crook methods. [7-59]
सोऽस्त्रव्रजैश्छन्नरथः परेषाम् ध्वजाग्रमात्रेण बभूव लक्ष्यः।
नीहारमग्नो दिनपूर्वभागः किंचित्प्रकाशेन विवस्वतेव॥ ७-६०
dhvajāgramātreṇa babhūva lakṣyaḥ |
kiṁcitprakāśena vivasvateva || 7-60
dhvajaagramaatreNa babhuuva lakShyaH |
ki.ncitprakaashena vivasvateva || 7-60
saH astra vrajaiH Channa rathaH pareShaam dhvaja agra maatreNa babhuuva lakShyaH niihaara magnaH dina puurva bhaagaH ki.ncit prakaashena vivasvata iva
7-60. pareShaam astra vrajaiH= adversaries, with weapons, clusters; Channa rathaH= covered, [who has his] chariot [deluged uder those weapons]; saH= he, Aja; niihaara magnaH dina puurva bhaagaH= in fog, shrouded, day’s, early part - dawn; ki.ncit prakaashena vivasvata iva= with a little, shine, Sun, as with; dhvaja agra maatreNa lakShyaH= by flag's, top, just by, marked; babhuuva= he became.
As with the befogged Sun perceptible only by the forerunning brilliance at dawn, Prince Aja could be marked by the top of banner on his chariot, for that chariot itself is enshrouded under the volley of missiles from his adversaries. [7-60]
प्रियंवदात्प्राप्तमसौ कुमारः प्रायुङ्क्त राजस्वधिराजसूनुः।
गान्धर्वमस्त्रम् कुसुमास्त्रकान्तः प्रस्वापनम् स्वप्ननिवृत्तलौल्यः॥ ७-६१
prāyuṅkta rājasvadhirājasūnuḥ |
prasvāpanam svapnanivṛttalaulyaḥ || 7-61
praayu~Nkta raajasvadhiraajasuunuH |
prasvaapanam svapnanivR^ittalaulyaH || 7-61
priya.nvadaat praaptam asau kumaaraH praayu~Nkta raajasu adhiraaja suunuH gaandharvam astram kusuma-astra-kaantaH prasvaapanam svapna nivR^itta laulyaH
7-61. adhiraaja suunuH= great king's, son - Aja; kusuma-astra-kaantaH= one who is like flower-arrowed one - like Lovegod - a handsome prince; svapna nivR^itta laulyaH= from dream, returned, waver - one whose thought are never wavering as will happen in a state of dream - always alert; asau kumaaraH= that, prince; priya.nvadaat praaptam= from [a gandharva called] Priyamvada, obtained; gaandharvam prasvaapanam astram= a gandharva, sleep-inducing, missile; raajasu praayu~Nkta= on kings, he triggered.
Then that son of an emperor Aja, who is as handsome as Lovegod and whose resoluteness is not dreamy or unwavering, triggered off a sleep-inducing missile previously obtained from a gandharva called Priyamvada, on the attacking kings. [7-61]
तस्थौ ध्वजस्तम्भनिषण्णदेहम् निद्राविधेयम् नरदेवसैन्यम्॥ ७-६२
nidrāvidheyam naradevasainyam || 7-62
nidraavidheyam naradevasainyam || 7-62
tataH dhanuH karShaNa muuDha hastam eka a.nsa paryasta shirastra jaalam tasthau dhvaja stambha niShaNNa deham nidraa vidheyam nara deva sainyam
7-62. tataH= then; dhanuH karShaNa muuDha hastam= bow, to pull, stupefied, hands; eka a.nsa paryasta shirastra jaalam= on one shoulder, drooping, helmets; dhvaja stambha niShaNNa deham= on flag, posts, leaning, bodies; nidraa vidheyam= sleep, subjugation; nara deva sainyam= peoples, lord's, armies; tasthau= stood still.
Hands hebetudinous to pull the bowstring; helmets slouching sideways; bodies propping on staves of flags, thus the armies of attacking kings are inactivated in the sloth of sleep. [7-62]
ततः प्रियोपात्तरसेऽधरोष्ठे निवेश्य दध्मौ जलजम् कुमारः।
तेन स्वहस्तार्जितमेकवीरः पिबन्यशो मूर्तमिवाबभासे॥ ७-६३
niveśya dadhmau jalajam kumāraḥ |
pibanyaśo mūrtamivābabhāse || 7-63
niveshya dadhmau jalajam kumaaraH |
pibanyasho muurtamivaababhaase || 7-63
tataH priya upaatta rase adhara oShThe niveshya dadhmau jalajam kumaaraH tena sva hasta aarjitam ekaviiraH piban yashaH muurtam iva ababhaase
7-63. tataH kumaaraH= then that prince Aja; priya upaatta rase adhara oShThe= by his darling, tasted, sweetness, of his lower, lip; jala jam= water, birthed one - a conch shell; niveshya= on keeping; dadhmau= sounded it; tena= by that act; ekaviiraH= that matchless hero; sva hasta aarjitam muurtam yashaH= his own, by hands [personally], obtained, personified, renown; piban iva= he is drinking, as though; ababhaase = he appeared.
Thereafter the prince put the conch-shell to his lips, the flavour of which lips he had reserved for his own beloved, and blew it; in applying the white conch-shell to his lip he appeared as the matchless hero drinking, as it were, his own fame in a personified form, and personally gained.
Please see KMJ's commentary on this.
शङ्खस्वनाभिज्ञतया निवृत्तास्तम् सन्नशत्रुम् ददृशुः स्वयोधाः।
निमीलितानामिव पङ्कजानाम् मध्ये स्फुरन्तं प्रतिमाशशाङ्कम्॥ ७-६४
sannaśatrum dadṛśuḥ svayodhāḥ |
nimīlitānāmiva paṅkajānām madhye
sphurantaṁ pratimāśaśāṅkam || 7-64
sannashatrum dadR^ishuH svayodhaaH |
nimiilitaanaamiva pa~Nkajaanaam madhye
sphuranta.m pratimaashashaa~Nkam || 7-64
sha~Nkha svana abhidnyatayaa nivR^ittaaH tam sannashatrum dadR^ishuH sva yodhaaH nimiilitaanaam iva pa~Nkajaanaam madhye sphuranta.m pratimaa shashaa~Nkam
7-64. sha~Nkha svana abhidnyatayaa nivR^ittaaH sva yodhaaH = conch shell's, sound, by knowing, returned, his own, soldiers; sanna shatrum= swooned, adversaries - one whose adversaries have swooned; tam= him, Aja; nimiilitaanaam pa~Nkajaanaam madhye = closed, day-lotuses, in the midst of; sphuranta.m pratimaa shashaa~Nkam iva= tremulous, image, of moon, as with; dadR^ishuH = they beheld.
Returning to him on recognising the sound of conch-shell of Aja, his soldiers have spotted him amid swooned adversaries, as they would spot the tremulous image of moon in a lake amidst closing day-lotuses. [7-64]
सशोणितैस्तेन शिलीमुखाग्रैर्निक्षेपिताः केतुषु पार्थिवानाम्।
यशो हृतम् संप्रति राघवेण न जीवितम् वः कृपयेति वर्णाः॥ ७-६५
nikṣepitāḥ ketuṣu pārthivānām |
yaśo hṛtam saṁprati rāghaveṇa
na jīvitam vaḥ kṛpayeti varṇāḥ || 7-65
nikShepitaaH ketuShu paarthivaanaam |
yasho hR^itam sa.nprati raaghaveNa
na jiivitam vaH kR^ipayeti varNaaH || 7-65
sa shoNitaiH tena shiliimukhaagraiH nikShepitaaH ketuShu paarthivaanaam yasho hR^itam sa.nprati raaghaveNa na jiivitam vaH kR^ipayeti varNaaH
7-65. sa.nprati= presently; raaghaveNa= by Raghu's son; [he raajaanaH= oh, kings]; vaH yashaH hR^itam= your, glory, is taken away; jiivitam kR^ipayaa na= life, with kindness, not - it is spared; iti varNaaH= these, letters; sa shoNitaiH shiliimukha agraiH= with bloodwet, arrowheads; tena= by him, Aja; paarthivaanaam ketuShu= on kings', banners; nikShepitaaH= got inscribed.
Then he caused to inscribe these words on the banners of slumbering kings with bloodwet arrowheads: "oh, kings, as of now Raghu's son deprived you of your glory, but not life, out of mercy...' [7-65]
स चापकोटीनिहितैकबाहुः शिरस्त्रनिष्कर्षणभिन्नमौलिः।
ललाटबद्धश्रमवारिबिन्दुर्भीताम् प्रियामेत्य वचो बभाषे॥ ७-६६
bhītām priyāmetya vaco babhāṣe || 7-66
bhiitaam priyaametya vaco babhaaShe || 7-66
sa caapa koTii nihita eka baahuH shirastra niShkarShaNa bhinna mauliH lalaaTa baddha shrama vaari binduH bhiitaam priyaam etya vacaH babhaaShe
7-66. caapa koTii nihita eka baahuH= on bow's, tower, one, arm; shirastra niShkarShaNa bhinna mauliH= helmet, on removing, dishevelled, hair; lalaaTa baddha shrama vaari binduH= on forehead, affixed, strain, water, drops - sweat; saH= he, Aja; bhiitaam priyaam etya= scared, ladylove, coming to; vacaH babhaaShe = words, spoke.
Coming to his scared ladylove, Aja with one hand placed on the tower of the bow, with the head- dishevelled when helmet is removed, while forehead perspiring after strain, spoke these words to her. [7-66]
इतः परानर्भकहार्यशस्त्रान्वैदर्भि पश्यानुमता मयासि।
एवंविधेनाहवचेष्टितेन त्वम् प्रार्थ्यसे हस्तगता ममैभिः॥ ७-६७
vaidarbhi paśyānumatā mayāsi |
prārthyase hastagatā mamaibhiḥ || 7-67
vaidarbhi pashyaanumataa mayaasi |
praarthyase hastagataa mamaibhiH || 7-67
itaH paraan arbhaka haarya shastraan vaidarbhi pashya anumataa mayaa asi eva.n vidhena ahava ceShTitena tvam praarthyase hasta gataa mama ebhiH
7-67. hè vaidarbhi= oh, princess from Vidarbha - Indumati; itaH= this side; arbhaka haarya shastraan= by children, graspable, weaponry - they have; paraan pashya= adversaries, you may see; mayaa anumataa asi= by me, you are permitted; ebhiH eva.n vidhena ahava ceShTitena= these, in this way, in war, they conduct themselves; mama hasta gataa tvam= in my, hands, gone in, you - you who are in my possession; praarthyase= they seek!
"Oh, princess from Vidarbha, I now permit you to behold these adversaries of mine who could be easily disarmed by even little children; these kings with slumberous behaviour on battlefield wished to usurp you from me, what a shame! [7-67]
तस्याः प्रतिद्वन्द्विभवाद्विषादात्सद्यो विमुक्तम् मुखमाबभासे।
निःश्वासबाष्पापगमात्प्रपन्नः प्रसादमात्मीयमिवात्मदर्शः॥ ७-६८
vimuktam mukhamābabhāse |
prasādamātmīyamivātmadarśaḥ || 7-68
vimuktam mukhamaababhaase |
prasaadamaatmiiyamivaatmadarshaH || 7-68
tasyaaH pratidvandvi bhavaat viShaadaat sadyaH vimuktam mukham aababhaase niHshvaasa baaShpa apagamaat prapannaH prasaadam aatmiiyam iva aatma darshaH
7-68. pratidvandvi bhavaat= enemy, as a cause; viShaadaat= from such sadness; sadyaH= immediately; vimuktam= released; tasyaaH mukham= her, face; niHshvaasa baaShpa apagamaat = of suspires, mist of puffs, on removal - from the surface of a mirror; aatmiiyam prasaadam= its own, transparency - of a mirror; prapannaH= repossessed; aatma darshaH= self, showing - a mirror reflecting seer's image; iva= as with; aababhaase = shone forth.
As with a looking glass shining forth after cleaning the mistiness of suspires, Indumati's face too shone forth after clearing the mist called sadness caused by invading enemies. [7-68]
हृष्टापि सा ह्रीविजिता न साक्षाद्वाग्भिः सखीनाम् प्रियमभ्यनन्दत्।
स्थली नवाम्भःपृषताभिवृष्टा मयूरकेकाभिरिवाभ्रवृन्दम्॥ ७-६९
hṛṣṭāpi sā hrīvijitā na sākṣādvāgbhiḥ
sakhīnām priyamabhyanandat |
mayūrakekābhirivābhravṛndam || 7-69
hR^iShTaapi saa hriivijitaa na saakShaadvaagbhiH
sakhiinaam priyamabhyanandat |
sthalii navaambhaHpR^iShataabhivR^iShTaa mayuurakekaabhirivaabhrabR^indam || 7-69
hR^iShTaa api saa hrii vijitaa na saakShaat vaagbhiH sakhiinaam priyam abhyanandat sthalii nava ambhaH pR^iShata abhivR^iShTaa mayuura kekaabhiH iva abhra bR^indam
7-69. saa hR^iShTaa api= she, is delighted, although; hrii vijitaa= by bashfulness, overpowered; hence; priyam saakShaat na abhyanandat= dear husband, directly, not, congratulated; [kimtu= but]; nava ambhaH pR^iShata= by new, waters, well drenched; abhivR^iShTaa= well rained on it; sthalii= the grassy glade; abhra bR^indam= clouds, cluster of; mayuura kekaabhiH [abhyanandat] iva = by peacock's, by shrieking, [thanked] as with; sakhiinaam vaagbhiH [abhyanandat] = [Indumati] with girlfriends', words, [thanked Aja].
A grassy glade does not thank the cloud-clusters directly if they drench her with ample rains, but does so through the shrills of peacocks dancing on it; so also, Indumati, although delighted at the victory of her husband has not directly congratulated him, but did so through the words put in the mouths of her girlfriends for bashfulness is still overwhelming on her. [7-69]
इति शिरसि स वामम् पादमाधाय राज्ञा
समरविजयलक्ष्मीः सैव मूर्ता बभूव॥ ७-७०
iti śirasi sa vāmam pādamādhāya rājñā
mudavahadanavadyām tāmavadyādapetaḥ |
samaravijayalakṣmīḥ saiva mūrtā babhūva || 7-70
iti shirasi sa vaamam paadamaadhaaya raaj~naam
udavahadanavadyaam taamavadyaadapetaH |
samaravijayalakShmiiH saiva muurtaa babhuuva || 7-70
iti shirasi sa vaamam paadam aadhaaya raaj~nyaam udavahat anavadyaam taam avadyaat apetaH ratha turaga rajobhiH tasya ruukSha alaka agraa samara vijayalakShmiiH saa eva muurtaa babhuuva
7-70. avadyaat apetaH= from faults, who is freed - unimpeachable; saH= he that Aja; iti= in this way; raaj~nyaam shirasi vaamam paadam aadhaaya= kings, on heads, left leg, on keeping - giving an ignominious defeat to his adversaries; an+avadyaam= flawless one - Indumati; taam= her; udavahat = taken away to his city; tasya ratha turaga rajobhiH= his, chariots, horses, by dust; ruukSha alaka agraa= she with roughened, hair lock, edges; saa eva= she, alone; muurtaa samara vijayalakShmiiH= personified, war's, Lady of Victory; babhuuva = she became.
In this way that unimpeachable prince Aja, giving an ignominious defeat to adversaries conducted his flawless bride to his city, while she with her hair-locks grimed with war-dust raised by chariots and horses looked more like his Lady of Victory. [7-70]
प्रथमपरिगतार्थस्तम् रघुः संनिवृत्तं
न्न हि सति कुलधुर्ये सूर्यवंश्या गृहाय॥ ७-७१
prathamaparigatārthastam raghuḥ saṁnivṛttaṁ
vijayinamabhinandya ślāghyajāyāsametam |
nna hi sati kuladhurye sūryavaṁśyā gṛhāya || 7-71
prathamaparigataarthastam raghuH sa.nnivR^itta.n
vijayinamabhinandya shlaaghyajaayaasametam |
nna hi sati kuladhurye suuryava.nshyaa gR^ihaaya || 7-71
prathama parigata arthaH tam raghuH sa.nnivR^itta.n vijayinam abhinandya shlaaghya jaayaa sametam tat upahita kuTumbaH shaanti maarga utsukaH aabhuut na hi sati kuladhurye suurya va.nshyaa gR^ihaaya
7-71. prathama= beforehand, before the arrival of Aja; parigata arthaH= gained, detailed account of Aja and his adventures; raghuH= emperor Raghu; vijayinam= victorious one - Aja; shlaaghya jaayaa sametam= with a praiseworthy, wife, one who is with; sa.nnivR^itta.n= returned - safely; tam= him - Aja; abhinandya= on greeting; tat upahita kuTumbaH san= in him, on relinquishing, the cares of the household; shaanti maarga utsukaH aabhuut= towards eternal tranquillity, he became anxious; hi= it is correct indeed; kuladhurye sati= when there is someone to take upon himself the burden of the family; suurya va.nshyaa= descendants of the solar dynasty; gR^ihaaya na [bhavanti]= mere householders, not, they become.
Emperor Raghu receiving a detailed account of Prince Aja and his victory beforehand greeted him on his arrival with a praiseworthy wife at the capital Ayodhya; then entrusting the family care to Prince Aja, that emperor himself wished to tread the path to eternal tranquillity; indeed, when there is someone to look after the family, the descendents of Solar dynasty are never for the life of householders, which includes kingdom as well. [7-71]
इति महाकवि कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये सप्तमः सर्गः
iti mahākavi kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye saptamaḥ sargaḥ
|previous chapter 6||contents||Next chapter 8|
|Revised : Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - April, 08|
Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar,Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN
pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy
upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.
u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.
u.me oc : upameya - object compared.
sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.
sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word
anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.
bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.
prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.
shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.
zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).
syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.
atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.
utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.
Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.
1] candra iva mukham manoj~nam = Like moon your face is heart-pleasing - upama alankAra.
2] candra iva mukham mukham iva candraH - That moon is like your face, and your face is like that moon - upameya upamA alankAra.
3] mukham iva mukham = face is face - ananvaya alankAra.
4] mukham iva candraH - moon is like your face - pratIpa alankAra
5] candram dR^iSTvA mukham smarAmi - on seeing I reminisce your face - smaraNa alankAra
6] mukham eva candraH - your face is moon alone - rUpaka alankAra
7] mukha candreNa tApaH shAmayati - on seeing moonlike face of yours, fervidity is lessening - pariNAma alankAra
8] kim idam mukham? uta aho! candraH - is this your face or that moon? - sandeha alankAra.
9] candra iti cakorAH tvat mukham anudhAvanti - thinking your face is moon songbirds are after it - bhrAntimat alankAra
10] candra iti cakorAH, kamala iti bhramarAH tvat mukhe ra~njanti - thinking your face to be moon, songbirds and bees [wish to take] delight in it.
11] camdro ayam, na mukham - this is moon, but not a face - apahnava
12] idam nUnam candraH - this is definitely the moon - utpreksha
13] candro ayam bhUpatiH - this king is the moon - atishayokti
14] mukhena candra kamale nirjite - moon or lotus is conquered by your face - tulya yogitA alankAra
15] nishi candraH tvat mukham ca hR^iSyati - night's moon delights your face - dIpaka alankAra
16] tvat mukha eva aham rajyAmi, candra eva cakoro rajyate - I take delight in your face, while songbirds take delight in that moon - prati vastu upama
17] divi candro yathA, bhuvi tathA tvat mukham bhAti - as to how the moon shines in the sky, thus your face shines forth on the earth - dR^iSTAnta alankAra
18] mukham candra shriyam bhibharti - your face is bearing the shine of that moon - nidarshana alankAra
19] niSkalankam mukham candrAt atiricyate - immaculate face of yours is surpassing that moon - vyatireka alankAra
20] tvat mukheva saha nishAsu candro hR^iSyati - along with your face, moon is also delightful in nights - saha ukti alankAra
21] mukham netra a.nka ruciram, smita jyostno upashobhitam - your face is delightful with eyes called its embellishments, and with moonshine like smiles - samAsa ukti alankAra
22] abjena tvat mukham tulyam hariNA hitasaktinA - your face vies with moon who has a deer in him, [or, your face vies with rising sun with lotus...] abhanga sabhanga shleSa alankAra
23] mukhasya puirataH candro niSprabhaH - before your face moon is loosing his shine a prastuta prashamsha.
desiraju hanumanta rao, May 2010
desirajuhrao at yahoo.com