>     Date: Mon, 01 Aug 2005 19:31:41 +0530
>     From: m r rao
>     Subject: ITRANS-based Translation Tool
>     To: avinash@acm.org
>     Dear Mr Chopde,
>     I have developed an ITRANS-based Translation Tool called SETU
>     (saMskR^itaM-English Translation Utility), using Qt Designer 3.3.4 of
>     Trolltech and Berkeley DB 4.2 of Sleepycat Software, as the database
>     engine, under PCQLinux 2005 (=RHL 9).
>     I am attaching a HTML page, with graphics, which describes the
>     software.
>     May I trouble you to let me have the benefit of your mature comments on
>     it? Thanks!
>     As mentioned in the HTML page, the giant task is to build the
>     English-saMskR^itaM Dictionary Database. May I have your advice and
>     guidance in this regard? Thanks again!
>     Sincerely
>     m r rao
>     P.S.: If, as I hope, you are sufficiently interested in this software I
>     will be happy to send it to you.
>     P.P.S.: Sorry! I forgot the attachments earlier!
>     SETU - saMskR^itaM-English Translation Utility
>     [1]ITRANS Coding Scheme
>     [tex7483.jpg]
>     This software is dedicated to those who believe that saMskR^itaM
>     should regain its currency in ordinary social intercourse as in
>     ancient times. saMskR^itaM is undoubtedly a cementing force to bend
>     all our energies in unison to build a great India.
>     It is a sad fact in India that those who know saMskR^itaM are not
>     acquainted with moderm mathematics and science. On the other hand,
>     those young Indians, who learn modern mathematics and science in our
>     Universities, have little knowledge of saMskR^itaM. Although there is
>     a vast body of literature in saMskR^itaM covering mathematics and
>     science, it is still essential to study and teach modern Western
>     mathematics and scientific methodology.
>     The Internet is a cornucopia of knowledge, an invisible, omnipresent,
>     easily-accessible library. Authoritative information on any scientific
>     subject can be obtained from it. This vast store-house of knowledge
>     must be translated into saMskR^itaM to re-vitalize it. It is hoped
>     that this Translation Tool will be of some service to those dedicated
>     and dauntless few who have taken it upon themselves to do this noble,
>     but admittedly thankless, job of translation.
>     The main screen looks like this:
>     [bhasha1a.png]
>     This software is to be used by those who have sufficient knowledge of
>     and command over both English and saMskr^itaM. It is meant to joggle
>     their truant memory by suugesting an appropriate word/phrase in
>     saMskR^itaM for one in English. To meet this end an
>     English-saMskR^itaM Dictionary Database (ESDDB) is part of this
>     software. Creating and maintaining this database demands a huge amount
>     of labour - far beyond the capacity of one individual. Much less
>     effort is needed for developing and maintaining the software itself.
>     How SETU can help
>     1. Click the Browse button to pop open an Open File Dialog box to
>     choose a file containing the English text to be translated into
>     saMskR^itaM. The chosen file is read in and the EnGlish textEdit
>     box (top left) is filled in.
>     This textBox can get focus by Cntrl-G.
>     2. [2]ITRANS coding scheme is used in this software for creating
>     saMskR^itaM texts.
>     Clicking Cntrl-I gives focus to the ITRANS textEdit box (bottom
>     left) in which the translated saMskR^itaM text is to be keyed.
>     3. Highlight a word or move the cursor within a word in the EnGlish
>     textEdit box and click LookUp button. The english word is copied
>     to the Key lineEdit box (top right), the suggested saMskR^itaM
>     word/phrase (if available) is fetched from the ESDDB and placed in
>     the sAmskrit textEdit box (bottom right).
>     If the English word/phrase is not available, then the user has to
>     update the ESDDB - as explained later - from reference materials
>     available to her/him.
>     4. The File/Open/Save/Save As menu items have the usual meaning and
>     all of them refer only to the ITRANS text in the ITRANS textEdit
>     box. The ITRANS file is usually a .txt file.
>     5. Clicking on Help/Contents will display this HTML Help page.
>     6. The ESDDB can also be operated independently of any text in either
>     the EnGlish or ITRANS textEdit boxes.
>     a. Key an English word/phrase into the Key lineEdit box.
>     Cntrl-K gives focus to this control and selects all text in
>     it.
>     b. Choose an appropriate word type from the Type combo box. (The
>     first 5 chars of Type are attached to the Key word to make
>     the key.)
>     c. Key the appropriate saMskR^itaM word/phrase, using ITRANS,
>     into the SAmskrit textEdit box.
>     Cntrl-A gives focus to this control. Cntrl-C clears this
>     control.
>     English synonyms can also be keyed into this textEdit box. By
>     highlighting such a word or moving the cursor into it and
>     clicking on the button QV (qui vide) will fetch the record
>     (if available) of the synonym from the ESDDB and display it.
>     d. The buttons FiRst, Last, Next, Prev, Search, SaVe and Delete
>     opearate on the records of the ESDDB.
>     The SaVe button adds/replaces a record in the ESDDB, using
>     the text in the Key lineEdit box and part of Type as key and
>     the text in the SAmskrit textEdit box as data.
>     The Search button fetches the first matching record from the
>     ESDDB, using the (partial) text in the Key lineEdit box.
>     The Delete button prepares a key like the SaVe button and
>     deletes the matching record, if found, from the ESDDB.
>     This software has been developed using Qt Designer 3.3.4 of Trolltech
>     and BerkeleyDB of Sleepycat Software as the database engine, under
>     PCLinux 2005 (= RHL 9).
>     References:
>     1. The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary by Vaman Shivram Apte,
>     Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, India.
>     2. The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Vaman Sivram Apte,
>     Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, India.
>     3. The Student's Guide To Sanskrit Compositio by Vaman Shivram apte,
>     Choukhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, India.
>     4. A Higher Sanskrit Grammar by M R Kale, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi,
>     India.
>     5. Glossary of Mathematics, Commission for Scientific & Technical
>     Terminology, Min. of HRD, Deptt. of Education, Govt. of India, New
>     Delhi.
>     6. Definitional Dictionary of Computer Science, Commission for
>     Scientific & Technical Terminology, Min. of HRD, Deptt. of
>     Education, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
>     ITRANS 5.1 Encoding Scheme for Devanagari
>     Copyright . 1991-97 Avinash Chopde, avinash@acm.org. All rights
>     reserved.
>     Vowels:
>     a aa / A i ii / I u uu / U
>     R^i R^I L^i L^I
>     e ai o au aM aH
>     Consonants:
>     k kh g gh ~N
>     ch Ch j jh ~n
>     T Th D Dh N
>     t th d dh n
>     p ph b bh m
>     y r l v / w
>     sh Sh s h L
>     x / kSh / kS GY / j~n / dny
>     R (for marathi half-RA)
>     L (marathi LLA)
>     Consonants with a nukta (dot) under them (mainly for Urdu devanagari):
>     k with a dot: q
>     kh with a dot: K
>     g with a dot: G
>     j with a dot: z
>     p with a dot: f
>     D with a dot: .D
>     Dh with a dot: .Dh
>     ph with a dot f
>     Specials/Accents:
>     Anusvara: .n / M / .m (dot on top of previous consonant/vowel)
>     Avagraha: .a (apostrophe; `S' like symbol basically to
>     replace a aft
>     er o)
>     Ardhachandra: .c (for vowel sound as in english words `cat' or `talk')
>     Chandra-Bindu: .N (chandra-bindu on top of previous letter)
>     {\m+} chandra-bindu with virama
>     Halant: .h (to get half-form of the consonant - no vowel - virama)
>     Ra ligature: ^r (top curve as in ii to get r sound, half r)
>     (^r put after the intended consonant, e.g u{dhva}^r)
>     Visarga: H (visarga - looks like a colon character)
>     Om: OM, AUM (Om symbol)
>     Svaras: \` udaatta (upper svara) (`= 096; not apostrophe)
>     \`` double udaatta (double upper svara)
>     \_ anudaatta (lower svara)
>     Following older codes are also accepted:
>     kSh (= ksh)
>     ~n (= JN)
>     ~N (= N^)
>     dny (= GY)
>     ^r (= .r)
>     Sh (= shh = Z = S)
>     Ch (= chh)
>     c (= ch)
>     To prevent the formation of ligatures you may insert {} between
>     characters. E.g
>     . kla converts to the kla ligature k{}la converts to half ka + la.
>     For more details on ITRANS 5.1 see http://www.aczone.com/itrans.html
>     References
>     1. file://localhost/tmp/bhasha.html#itrans_code
>     2. file://localhost/tmp/bhasha.html#itrans_code

>     My main intention in developing this s/w is to provide a tool to
>     those who would undertake the daunting, but, in my view, absolutely
>     commendable and noble, task of translating technical literature
>     from the Internet into saMskR^itaM, so as to enrich and modernize
>     it. Therefore, the dictionary database is organized as a
>     saMskR^itam-English Dictionary, closely modelled on The Student's
>     English-Sanskrit Dictionary of Vaman Shivram Apte.
>     The real important task is to build that Dictionary, drawing from
>     as many sources as possible. On-line Dictionaries are of little
>     practical value to these translators. What they need is some s/w
>     like SETU, with a built-in saMskR^itaM-English Dictionary, which
>     can run on a PC.


An example
I am attaching tcp_ip.txt - an improved version of the saMsk^itaM 
rendering in ITRANS of the sample English passge in SETU.

This file will be placed in directory setu.

m r rao



1982tame varShe ##TCP/IP Internet##vyUhe katicicChatAni sa~NgaNakAni 
eva caturviMshatisthAneShu antargatAni Asan yAni Adau 
uttara##America##deshe samupacitAni Asan| 1992tame varShe vasante 
samApte sati saptamahAdvIpavyApteShu 39desheShu 
saptalakShoparisa~NgaNakAni ##Internet##vyUhe alagan| api ca 
pratidashamAsaM tasya vyUhasya parimANaM dviguNyabhavat.h| 
##Internet##vyUhAntargatAnAM 4500jAlAnM tR^itIyakalpabhAgaH 
##USA##deshAt.h bahiH AsIt.h|	

api ca bahavaH bR^ihannigamAH nijAntarjAlArthe 
##tcp/ip##niyamasUtrANi vR^itavantaH santi yeShu antarjAleShu kecit 
dashavarhapUrvaM sambaddhAntarjAlaH yaH AsIt.h tena  tulyapramANAH| 
jagati vidyamAneShu antarjAleShu bR^hadbhAgaH ##tcp/ip##tantrAdhInaH| 
##europe##varShe bharatavarShe dakShiNa##america##varShe tathA 
shAntisAgaraprAnte vartamAneShu desheShu ca tasya tantrasya prayogaH 
shIghraM vardhate|

kevalaM pramANavardhanaM vihAya gate varShadashake antarjAlasthAnAnaM 
##tcp/ip##tantraprayogapaddhatyAM mahatvapUrNaH pariNAmaH dR^iShTaH| 
purA vidyutpatravAhanaM sa~ncikapreShaNaM dUralagnaM ityAdayAH 
katipayamaulikasevAH eva sAmAnyataH prayuktAH Asan| adhunA 
prayoktAraH  niyamasUtrANi svayaM kalpayanti anuprayogaprakramANi 
svayaM racayanti ca| vastutaH sambaddhasya antarjAlasya pravR^ittiShu 
pa~ncamabhAgaH nijebhyaH prakrmebhyaH udbhavati| 
maulikapreShaNasevArthaM nUtanaprakramANi ##tcp/ip##tantrAdhInAni| 
tAni prakramANi nAnAvidhakAryANi kurvanti yena antarjAlaparisaraH 
pravardhate ataH prayokTR^igaNAH antarjAlasaMbandhena atIva 
upakR^itAH bhavanti|

From: "m r rao" 
Subject: Re: [ITRANS-based Translation Tool]
Date: Sat, 17 Sep 2005 00:23:32 +0530

> Can this be used on a PC platform?

It IS designed to run a Linux PC. As mentioned in the README file, 
the s/w has been developed using Qt Designer of Trolltech - a 
multi-platform C++ GUI IDE and Berkeley DB, which also has a Windows 
version. Theoretically, therefore, it should be possible to port SETU 
to Windows.

> Is it possible for you to convert the processor on-line like 
> http://www.aczoom.com/itrans/online/ .

Translation is not an on-line activity, in my view. I have done some 
English to saMskR^itaM translation and I know the time it takes to 
get the right word/phrase and to atructure a sentence. The two 
languages are quite different in grammar and structure. A literal 
translation is neither advisable nor elegant. The English language 
has developed very rapidly, with practically everybody in the world 
shaping it in one way or another. One has only to study the prose of 
Milton, Shaw, Russell and a modern American-African to understand the 
mind-boggling metamorphosis of the language. That is the strength and 
weakness of English. saMskR^itaM, on the contrary, has remained 
unchanged for centuries and, thanks to "secularism" in India, its 
study, improvement and modernization is actively discouraged, if not 
forbidden. This attitude must change and every effort must be made to 
make saMskR^itaM as nimble and flexible as English. Almost 
single-handedly Dante, it is said, gave shape and direction to modern 
Italian language. We need a new Panini to re-vitalize saMskR^itaM. 
The old Panini had shown the way of how to make a language grow - 
with denominatives, affixes etc. But, unfortunately, that inspiration 
has vanished and the muse of innovation is not invoked in spite of 
kAlidAsa's caustic admonition:

purANamityeva na sAdhu sarvaM nacApi kAvyaM navamityavadyaM|
santaH parIkShyAnyatarat bhajante mUDhAH parapratyayaneyabuddhiH||

(A thing is not praise-worthy just because it is old and traditional. 
Nor is a work of art exempt from criticism just because it is new and 
modern. A wise man examines the merits of each dispassionately and 
decides. Only fools are led by the opinions of others (- especially 
media propoganda!))

m r rao
> Is it possible for you to convert the processor on-line like 
> http://www.aczoom.com/itrans/online/ .

I am taking up your question once again. I tried to find out from the 
ITRANS site whether they have any APIs for converting ITRANS text 
into devanAgarI script. I didn't find any. Only the link above. So, I 
guess one would prepare an ITRANS text using SETU and then use the 
above link to get the devanAgarI rendering as a gif/pdf/html/etc.