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Sanskrit can be called as a "language of consciousness", may be because it
opens the door to India's rich spiritual literature. Sanskrit is not
restricted to spirituality & religion, however, but also encompasses a vast
literature of many genres; and for us to understand the beauty behind those
copious beautiful texts, learning the Sanskrit language is a must.
Sanskrit, which was a primary language of communication in ancient India,
lives on in modern India, though not in its full form: it survives in bits
and pieces, in one way or another, in the various Indian languages that have
descended from it. For natives of India, therefore, it is a matter of
recapitulation of a language, which is present in them and merely seeking a
Unlike English and other modern European languages, Sanskrit seems somewhat
difficult to understand for most Westerners. This is true not only because
of its script (devanagari), which is quite foreign to Western & European
countries, but also because of its grammatically complex structure and
highly inflected forms, which can be more richly inflected even than Greek
or Latin, particularly the verbal conjugations.
The links below present an introduction to the Sanskrit language and a little motivation to joyously pursue it to one's own capacity.
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Online Sanskrit Dictionaries
The online Sanskrit dictionary is intended to build
a repository of Sanskrit words/meanings in a simple,
We hope you find it useful and also contribute in
adding more words to the collection -
The complete text of the dictionary is available in -
AkhyAntachandrikA is a thesaurus for verbs in Sanskrit compiled on the same
line of amarakosha for nouns. It is arranged into semantic classes arranged
in a certain order. There are some others like dhAturatnAvalI, dhAturatnapradIpaH
or maitreyarakShita although they are focussed on their conjugation in groups.
A scanned copy of AkhyAntachandrikA are at
The links to the 5 volumes of Dhaturatnakara (Jain version) By Muni Lavanyavijaya
are (in serial order)
http://www.jainlibrary.org/book.php?file=001920 to http://www.jainlibrary.org/book.php?file=001924
One can download them only after registering at the http://www.jainlibrary.org site.
for words in the dictionary.
Tutorials & documentation:
- Sanskrit Tutorial - Charles Wikner -
Browsable and Indexed GIF version
Postscript version. See .ps in formats and viewers. (File
size is about 1.3Mb.
- PDF1 and
PDF2. PDF1(1Mb) is smaller and suitable for both PC and Mac. See .pdf in formats and viewers.
- Link to sktfont-announce.txt
- Link to sktintro-announce.txt
- Link to sktdoc.ps600 Another version of postscript (600dpi) document
- Link to sktreadme.txt Sanskrit ReadMe File
- Link to sktintro.ps600-letter-march97
Another version of postscript in Letter Size
- Link to sktintro.ps600-a4paper-march97
Another version of postscript in A4 Size
- Link to sktintps.zip
A zipped postscript file
Read Charles Wikner's reply on the purpose of the document
- Sanskrit Tutorial translated in French by Yann Leglise - Updated April 2014
Sanskrit tutorial in French, PDF (794 Kb), version 2.
Please read older notes about this translation. Email: Yann.Leglise at wanadoo.fr for more information. "English : This second version includes corrections about typo, style, translation, and also includes some missing parts. However, the main change in this version is the use of color in order to make the document easier to read, and a little less stern.
French : Cette seconde édition contient des correction orthographiques, de style, de traduction et inclut également quelques parties manquantes. Cependant le changement le plus important réside dans l'utilisation de couleurs afin de rendre le document plus facile à lire et un peu moins austère"
- Excellent "Introduction to Sanskrit series" at Sringeri Vidya Bharati Foundation (SVBF) : Units 1 through 16. They are recast in a newer site format and are available at http://svbf.org/svbf_journal.php. Unfortunately some links are broken. All the tutorials from the site are compiled at one place by Ramakrishna Upadrasta at Introduction to Sanskrit by Shri (Dr.) M.R. Dwarakanath.
- The Learn Sanskrit Series
is developed by Mr. Vasudeva Bhat (the link to only www.ourkarnataka.com/ site is not working but sanskrit lessons work). There are 45 lessons (Jan 2010) which are also translated in Kannada. For Kannadigas, this is an excellent site.
- and the Samskrit Education in Chennai, India.
Information relating to Sanskrit and set of basic lessons
to learn the language through self study.
Devanagari Script via browser (without having to install any Fonts) ,
This site has a useful multilingual editor developed by
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, at Chennai, and is available at
It may be used in a number of ways to prepare
documents in Sanskrit and all the Indian languages.
Inline images for the tutorial are generated from special text files
prepared using the Multilingual Software. Contact Professor
for additional information.
Mandar Joglekar has converted these lessons in ASP based files for easy browsing.
- Learn Sanskrit using Marathi from sanskritdeepika.org as one of the major activities of Dnyanadeep foundation, in Sangli, Maharashtra.
- Kalidasa Samskrita Kendram in Chennai presents "Teaching Sanskrit Through Web" series of lessons. The center offers diploma courses in Sanskrit. The founder V.C. Govindarajan vcgrajan at yahoo.com has also initiated a Kalidasa group on yahoo where the lessons are first posted and discussed. The Kendram site also holds "Articles on History of Sanskrit Literature." ALso see Sanskrit lessons.
- Learn Sanskrit online presentation at http://www.learnsanskrit.org has grammar contents grouped as * Sounds * Fundamentals * Details * Making Words * References. The site has an online transliteration tool Sanscript to display Sanskrit script in different formats including Roman+diacritics or IAST.
- Subscribe and read the monthly magazine, sanskR^ita bAlasamvAdaH, edited by Shri Madhav Bade of Kolthare, Dapoli, Dist Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Some sample issues are given here
Find Sanskrit Primer, Bhagvadgita, Vishnusahasranama applications (apps) for Hifi use on iPhone, iTunes, and Android on the http://sparshapps.com/. The Sanskrit primer app aims to not only provide a teach yourself type guide to basic Sanskrit but also server as a handy pocket reference. The utilities are built by Krishna Varma .
- Master Sanskrit Easily written and presented by Dr. Narayan Kansara of Ahmedabad. This is an extensive 301 page tutorial and is well formatted for two sided booklet printing. The entire text is in Roman with Diacritics. Its details are summarized in the Preface text file. Get the PDF files as Title, Parts 1, 2, and 3.
- Girvanapratishtha, a step by step lessons in Sanskrit are provided by Swamis from
Chitrapur Math at http://www.chitrapurmath.net/.
These are excellent tutorials and one must study them as they are presented in lively manner.
- Sanskrit Lessons by Bhikshuni Heng Hsien in 1972 with Chinese/English translation. The lessons are hosted by The Sage City of Ten Thousand Buddhas at cttbusa.org.
There lessons to learn Sanskrit, Pali, and Tibetan at http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/BDLM/en/lesson/fan/lesson_fan1.jsp.
- SaMskRutaadhyayanam with Shri S. L. Abhyankar. Many lessons are provided under the title "Learning Sanskrit in distance learning mode" in addition to help on speaking Sanskrit. Shri Abhyankar participates and guides students of Sanskrit literature in the learnsanskrit.wordpress.com along with Prof. Himanshu Pota. See also http://slezall.blogspot.com/.
- Arshavidya center is founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati conducts various classes related to Bhagvadgita, Vedanta, and Sanskrit. The website at sanskrit101 contains
Audio classes by Sri Vijay Kapoor
Sanskrit classes on web by Br. Shankara
Classification of Alphabets
Writing of Alphabets
Common verbal roots with preposition
Sanskrit Noun Generator
Sanskrit Verb Generator
Language Analyzers & Generators
Sanskrit Sahakarin by Kumud Singhal
Part1 Vyakarna (new) | Part 2 Katha (new)
Part1:1-59 Part2:60-124 | Part3:125-182 | Part4:183-239 | Part5:242-307 | Part6:307-367
Sanskrit grammar books are also available for download at
Spiritual Seeker's Essential Guide to Sanskrit prepared by Dennis Waite dennis.waite at virgin.net .
Dr. Sudhir Kaicker, Director, Computer Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, has coordinated development of a Sanskrit tutor called SanskritaPradipika for PC-Windows. It is available for download (after free registration) at http://www.sanskrit-lamp.org. The file size is over 20 Mb.
Gabriel Pradiipaka and Andres Muni have compiled a procedure to Learn Sanskrit Language Step by Step. The FAQ written by Gabriel may be inspiring for new students.
at http://www.sriaurobindoashram.com and go to Ashram/ Departments/ sanskrit is a site for various
online display and audio of Sanskrit tutorials, magazine from Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry. The publications can be ordered from SABDA, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Puducherry - 605 002, India. For Ordering Information http://www.sabda.in.
http://murthygss.tripod.com/ (murthygss at gmail.com) provides Sabdamanjushaa, dhaatumanjari and email based lesson(s) of a Sanskrit course for beginners.
Learn Sanskrit through pictures (from Nepal) using vyAvahArikaM Sanskrit parts
3 from http://www.pustakalaya.org. (Also linked from http://sanskritebooks.org, June 2010.)
These books, prepared by Pramodavardhan Kaundinnyayan with guidance from Shivaraj Acharya Kaundinnyayan,
have nicely drawn sketches explaining word meanings and sentences
in Sanskrit. The series of three books are produced for Svadhyayashala,
which is a long running Sanskrit Tradition in Nepal. It provides great classes on Sanskrit, Vedic Way of Life and many more on Vedic Sanatan Dharma.
(Communicated by Ujjwol Lamichhane from Nepal.)
There is a list of Sanskrit grammar books prepared for a serious student of Sanskrit. The list is available in ambaa.org collection.
The Sanskrit-E-books site has presented several downloadable scanned books to learn Sanskrit. Among them, those by Kamalashankar Trivedi appear to be more "intuitive."
A slide presentation with audio clips on Question Making for Sanskrit learners. (password for read only part is 12345). Prepared by S K Mishra.
The T?tir?-Pr??hya and commentary tribhAShyaratna by William Dwight Whitney has an elaborate presentation on svara system, alphabets, use of anusvAra et cetera.
Other pratishAkhya-s available at Digital Library of India, namely
Riktantra Sama Veda,
Multimedia format for Learning Sanskrit
- Learn Sanskrit through self-study at http://www.acharya.gen.in:8080/sanskrit/tutor.php.
- Learn Sanskrit for Beginners (CD-Rom).
- Bhashika: The Complete Course for Spoken Sanskrit (2 CDs) $12.95 .
A self-learning CD SanskritashikShikA produced by Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Rs 260 or 12USD+shipping.
- Correspondence course with Rashtriya SAnskrit Sansthan, New Delhi.
- Prof. Madhav Deshpande's audio course: http://umich.edu/~iinet/media/csas/sanskrit/audio.html that supports learning through his book "Samskrta-Subhodini: A Sanskrit Primer."
- http://samskrute.blogspot.com/, Dhananjay Vaidya's guidance for Sanskrit pronunciations.
- Radio for learning Sanskrit via Hindi at http://shoutcast.com/radio/sanskrit.
- An online portal (http://www.sanskritfromhome.in)
for Sanskrit Learning has been launched by Ideas Software and Consulting
Pvt Ltd (Bangalore) in association with Samskrti Foundation (Mysore). The
portal, named vyoma-samskrta-pathashala, is intended to provide a
collaborative platform for Sanskrit teachers and students.
Currently it offers an interactive self-learning course for Beginners
in Sanskrit. It also contains a course for school students (studying
10th standard in Karnataka), and a course for Grammar paper of MA exam
conducted by Karnataka State Open University (KSOU). Several other
courses are targeted at different groups of learners. Please send your
suggestions and feedback through email at email@example.com
- From the same team at sanskritfromhome.in there is now a new venture
vyomalabs.in to have
online training course for CBSE X Sanskrit Students. Vyoma Labs
is a non-profit organisation that brings together sanskrit and technology.
They are probably the only private organisation in India working in
the Sanskrit domain. The organisation is funded by a group of sanskrit
enthusiasts. The CBSE 10th Standard gives students explanations at
length regarding Sanskrit concepts - Reading in Sanskrit, Writing in
Sanskrit, Concepts in Sanskrit Grammar, Sanskrit Prose and Sanskrit
Poetry. Among other products are Flagship Product:- Samskruta Balamodini,
Samskrit Sandhis for beginners, Ashtadhyayi, Shabda-Roopa-Sangrahah,
ti~NantapakriyA, Laghu SiddhAnta Kaumdi, MA Sanskrit Courses,
Vaiyakarana Siddhanta kaumudi, Praudhamanorama, and Shishugeetaani and more.
- Online Sanskrit learning lessons and video tutorials for learning Sanskrit
grammar are available at OpenPathshala.com
with a fee. On demand classes for learning Sanskrit (be it conversation, grammar
or literature and philosophy). Classes are conducted online through
Skype. Contact Rahul Dolas rahuldolas123 at gmail.com.
- Listen to the weekly lessons/ discussions based on the excellent works
of samskRita-bhAratI (esp: janArdhana heggaDe's bhAShApAka
and shuddhi-kaumudI), led by shrI svarUp-dInabandhu. The
recently started discussion list is found here:
Google group bhaashaapaakavargah.
These audio lessons are recorded and then automatically published as a
podcast by the freeconferencecall.com system. (Prefers IE browser although works on Firefox selectively. Works on the podcast app on phone).
- An audio rendering of aShTAdhyAyI, the entire treatise on Sanskrit grammar
(8 chapters of sUtras), called aShTaadhyaayii by maharshi paaNini.
It is rendered by Achaarya Vinayaka Rajata Bhat, Vidwaan Ramakrishna Bhat K of Bangalore.
The same audio clips are enhanved with display of corresponding
text and is given in YouTube Au Chemie channel.
It is work in progress, and more adhyAyas are being added with careful timing of
text with video.
(Alternative link 12).
- In an effort to learn Ashtadhayi by heart, Sitaram Ramakoti, raamakoti [at] gmail.com prepared a set of PowerPoint presentations, paper flashcards, audio clips et cetera.
Eventually he created the Anki Deck for learning Ashtadhyayi. It can be
viewed (sample and summary) and downloaded from Anki Deck with Audio for learning Ashtadhyayi from
ankiweb.net. Raama has given some details and tips at
samskrita newgroup posting December 5, 2013, along with "AshTAdhyAyi Memorization.xlsx" MS Excel file.
- Learn Prathamaavrutti siddhi sangraha aShTAdhyAyI
with audios by Vyakaranacharya, Acharya Vedshrami,a resident
priest at Atlanta Vedic temple. The audio files are also posted
on YouTube as well as Google
Plus without any visual pictures but only the Panini stamp. A few
of his students have started preparing text from the audio, and the files
are posted on Evernote.
- Pandit Bramhadatta Jigyaasu ji presents an easier way to understand
Ashtadhyayi through audio lectures are anubhuuta saralatama vidhI.
Sanskrit alphabets, their strokes and sounds:
A note on the pronunciation of vowel R^i by Dhananjay Vaidya
For Devanagari alphabet learning
(recognition of letters, writing method, and sounds) use
A chart of Devanaagarii letters for beginners
Consonant-Vowel combination, baaraakhaDii (ka, kaa, ki, ... GYaH)
Numbers (cardinals, ordinals, fractions, time telling) in Sanskrit
Numbers in Hindi
A pronunciation table for the Sanskrit alphabet
Introduction to Sanskrit Grammar; (needs proof-reading/correction)
Sanskrit Nouns/Verbs tables - "shabdavibhaktii pratyaya".
- shabdarUpAvalI, declension tables for many Sanskrit words. The book has an interesting table of contents. This has many
verses listing the words in the book and these are also the main
samples of various words in use. The listing verse for the pronouns
is particularly fun to recite.
vibhaktiipratyaya generation by Gerard Huet's declension
display and grammarian engine.
- Gerard Huet's
Sanskrit reader and sandhi analysis utility
It can break a sentence
in words, try sugandhi.mpu.s.tivardhanam. It supports
4 transliteration schemes (Velthuis, Kyoto-Harvard, WX and SLP1), plus 2 Unicode fonts (Devanagari and IAST).
The sandhi program is directly linked here. The tools from the site
may specify support for lexicon access either from Monier Williams (provided with access to grammatical support) as well as the Sanskrit-French
- Dr. Dhaval Patel, who has been maintaining the sanskritworld.in has written a PHP baed open souce utility as Subanta generation machine according to Siddhanta kaumudi. See the engine at http://www.sanskritworld.in/sanskrittool/subanta.html.
The documented code is available at github.com/drdhaval2785.
Author indicates that "anyone with some basic knowledge of coding will be able to make out the logic and algorithm used."
It gives all the Ashtadhyayi sutras to generate each of the 24 forms.
It's a very useful tool different than developed so far by thers who
give the final form but not all the sutras needed to derive each of
the 24 words.
- In continuation with Dhaval's newer Sanskrit related activities, here is
an announcements of Database for Sanskrit Verb forms
From: dhaval patel drdhaval2785 at gmail.com
Sent: Friday, June 24, 2016 11:32 AM
Subject: [Samskrita] Database of Sanskrit Verb forms
As a result of our work on tiGanta generation tool for past some years,
We present the following database of generated verb forms of Sanskrit language for Sanskrit NLP community.
The file is in XML format and a typical line is in the following format -
Data set has a total of 267797 entries.
Data has verb forms for around 2240 verbs.
Project code page -
Project testing page -
N.B. - The code will also show up applicable Paninian rules and
the effect thereof on the verb forms sequentially.
Current version -
v1.10.0 Date 24 June 2016
Dr. Dhaval Patel and Dr. Shivakumari Katuri.
1. Prof. Amba Kulkarni of Univ. of Hyderabad for allowing us access
to her database of verb forms and various dhAtuvRttis.
2. Prof. Gerard Huet of INRIA for allowing us access to his
database of verbforms.
We have used these two existing databases for comparing our
results against, and have made necessary corrections where
there were evident errors.
Dr. Dhaval Patel, I.A.S
Collector and District Magistrate, Anand
- Prof. Himanshu Pota has prepared a booklet to help a
student of Paninian Grammar, namely "Twentyfive name-sugroups
to formulate a Panian method to generate vibhakti pratyas
(declensions) of Sanskrit words" : pANinIyapaddhatyA shabdarUpANi
(pa~nchaviMshatiprakArashabdAnAM rUpAvaliH anyAni subantarUpANI cha).
Download the booklet subantarUpANI
in PDF (416Kb) format or its HTML version and original XeTeX/LaTeX nameplate input file
as a TeX savvy example. The associated LaTeX utility files are shloka.sty and preamble.tex.
- Digitized editions and scanned images of Sanskrit-English/German dictionaries are available at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries.
The web page provides Sanskrit lexicons prepared by the Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies, Cologne University.
The advanced site feature gives the declension of the stem, or gives the stem and declension if you
input the inflected stem.
- Sanskrit Morphological Generator at http://sanskrit.uohyd.ernet.in developed by Department of Sanskrit Studies, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad (guided by Amba Kulkarni.) The site also has tools related to Ashtadhyayi,
Sanskrit Compound Analyser.
- Six volumes of Paniniya Ashtadhyayi Pravachanam by Dr. Sudarshanadeva Acharya
- A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar by Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and J. M. Shukla, 1986 edition.
- Visit http://www.scribd.com/sanskritvyakarana, for over 90 high level Sanskrit grammar scanned books. The list includes
Ashtadhayi of Panini with commentaries, Upsargartha Chandrika,
Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi with commentaries, Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari, Varttika,
Nighantu, Nirukta, Sphotanirnaya,
Madhya Siddhanta Kaumudi Prashnottari,
Upsarga Varga of Mahadeva Bhattacharya,
et cetera. See also http://www.scribd.com/collections/3833696/Sanskrit-Sahitya-Vyakarana,
- The site https://nell.io/akp/sanskrit provides helping guide to learn basic Sanskrit. It is "improving day by day." The author has presented the material in simple manner. A novel feature is
that student/reader can highlight a portion on comment about it.
- Many Sanskrit Grammar books are compiled on archive.org access by Chandradutt Sharma. Other audio and book collections are also on archive.org.
- Learn Sanskrit through Tamil at http://www.sangatham.com. This site provides book reviews, articles, humour, news, downloads, and links.
In simple Sanskrit learning catagory, names of
flowers and fruits with pictures,
months and days,
short stories are grouped.
Lessons include spoken Sanskrit and topics related to grammar. Around the web "links" with pictures are carefully formatted.
- Learn Sanskrit through Tamil from Samskritasri Patamala, at kamakoti.org. There are six parts in the book.
- Volunteers at http://www.sanskritroots.com are preparing a long glossary of Sanskrit words with equivalent Tamil words and sentences. It also has a file of opinions of learned scholars on Sanskrit.
- All the Sanskrit texts books from NCERT are available
athttp://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/textbook/textbook.htm. See also complete Texts.
- Sanskrit tools at http://www.greenmesg.org.
The tools include
- 01.Sanskrit Dictionary: Monier-Williams Sanskrit dictionary.
- 02.Sanskrit Dictionary Aid: Find sub-words within composite Sanskrit words.
- 03.Sanskrit English Pad: Format Sanskrit words within English sentences.
- 04.Sanskrit Noun Declension: Examples of Sanskrit Noun Declensions.
- 05a.Sanskrit Sandhi Rules: Sanskrit Sandhi Rules with examples.
- 05b.Sanskrit Sandhi Tool: Combine Sanskrit words.
- 06.Sanskrit Sentences: Examples of Sanskrit sentences with grammatical analysis.
- 07.Sanskrit Sorting Tool: Sort Sanskrit words online.
- 08a.Sanskrit Verb Conjugation Rules: Verb Conjugation Rules with examples.
- 08b.Sanskrit Verb Conjugation Tables: Verb Conjugation Tables with operation summary.
- 09.Sanskrit Word List: Sanskrit words under different categories.
- 10. Sanskrit Writing Pad: Write Sanskrit using English.
- Fruits, Vegetables
- The alphabets in Sanskrit are related to numbers and have been used for coded language. Read about Sanskrit letters and their numerical equivalents in Yoga-Chakras and
Sanskrit alphanumerics in the book
"The Eastern Mysteries: An Encyclopedic Guide to the Sacred Languages ... - David Allen Hulse - Google Books"
- GSS Murthy has presented shabdama.njUShA, a casket of shabda-s, words, a compilation of declension tables for nouns in Sanskrit. An index of shabda-s including alphabetical sorting is given to display their declension table. A list of reference books is also provided. Contact Murthy at murthygss at gmail.com for additional details and for corrections.
He has also developed meter recognition tool Java script. Contact GSS Murthy for the latest executable file.
- Chetan Pandey has developed a Sanskrit-English
dictionary utility at https://code.google.com/p/sktutilities/.
It also contains a Transliterator (transliterator.zip), Sandhi Engine
(sandhi.zip), Pratyahara Decoder (pratyahara.zip), Monier Williams
dictionary (Sanskrit Words in this Stand-alone Java Dictionary.) (SanskritDictionaryV-2.zip).
- The following classes are taught by Shri Satish Karandikar.
All classes are recorded and archived in a website - please see http://tinyurl.com/PaniniLinks (or for direct googledocs)
and look for the link titled "2. Webinar Recordings Online"
Please subscribe to http://groups.google.com/group/avg-wknd-sanskrit-class/ to get notifications of classes, webinar etc.
The recordings of older programs are available at http://avg-sanskrit.org/notes-for-saturday-class/saturday-class-recordings/.
- Every Wednesday
Antoinne book 2 - Use of Panini rules to do exercises
- Every Thursday
Raghuvamsa with Mallinatha Suri's commentary
- Every second and fourth Saturday:
2:30 pm - 4:00 pm EST Selected Sutras from Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi to help analyze verses from Bhagavad Gita
4:30 pm - 6:00 pm EST Analysis of verses from Valmiki Ramayanam. Use of Panini rules wherever required.
- See Ajit Krishnan's compilation of AshTAdhyAyI sarvanisutrani or sarvANi sUtrANi.
- A Consolidated AShTadhyAyI Sutra Index page with
padacCheda and links to
several existing commentaries (including the above) - sortable in various ways.
This puts together the information in several other ashtadhyayi lists on this
- Read an article by Shripad L Abhyankar on Studying Ashtadhyayi, Why and How, and other lessons at http://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com.
Smt. Sowmya Krishnapur from Bangalore is teaching Siddhanta
Kaumudi over webinar. She is a student of Smt.Vijayalakshmi Mahabaleshwara Bhat. She has completed her Acharya in vyakaranam [MA ] is now a part time student of Vidya Varidhi [P.hd].
Her Siddhanta Kaumudi classes are recorded and
uploaded to http://ggss-lessons.org. The current schedule
is Mon, Wed, Fri 8:00 pm - 9:00 pm IST. Please subscribe to
http://groups.google.com/group/gita-govinda-sanskrit to get notifications
of classes, webinar etc. The site is run by a voluntary organisation dedicated to spreading Sanskrit http://www.ggss.org.in. Lessons for first 9 prakaranas are uploaded as wmv, mp3 and also as pdf.(Feb 2011.)
American Sanskrit Institute has well prepared audio CDs with printed text. Visit http://americansanskrit.com.
- Listen to audio lessons on Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi by Swami Ramakrishnanji in Tamil:
A video crash course (YouTube) by the same Swamiji is avaialble in two parts.
Indian Lexicon by Dr. Kalyanraman
Dhaatu PaaTha list of 2200 roots from Indian Lexicon Site
Verb forms (Whitney) from Indian Lexicon Site
- An Excel 2007 spread sheet file with Ashtadyaayi SuutrapaaThaH in Alphabetical and Numerical arrangement.
- A collection of vibhaktis of entire aSTAdhyAyi, padachChedas are available in teh following files.
This is a work in progress project.
vibhaktis are the pada-Cheda and vibhakti of the entire aSTAdhyAyi
(need to be proof-read). This collection is built and edited by
Sumit D. Garg Contact d.garg.sumit at gmail.com for suggestions and questions.
(He is a member of firstname.lastname@example.org ,
a group started and moderated
by Dr Shivamurthy Swamiji developer of Ganakastadhyayi
which discusses all topics related to Sanskrit grammar.)
See also samAsachakram that he has entered.
- pANinIya vyAkaraNam navInA dR^iShTihiH, a new approach
to learning grammar presented by students of Smt. Dr. Puspa Diiksita
(called mAtA) with her unique approach, "techniques which Panini used
to achieve the
critical task of groupifying and organizing the elements",
so called "a new approach." The process is broken in eight
parts 1) dhAtugaNa parichayaH, 2) mAheshvarANi sUtrANi,
3) pAThasya vailakShaNam 4) dhAtuvijnAnam
5) sArvadhAtukaprakaraNam (adantam),
6) sArvadhAtukaprakaraNam (anadantam),
7) ArdhadhAtuprakaraNam, 8) karapatrANi, vargasya krame.
The lessons are all in Sanskrit and beginners are expected to
learn through "Abhyasa-Pustakam" independently, with basic understanding
of present-tense verbs and nouns up through i-kArAnta (muni),
u-kArAnta (shishu), and Ru-kArAnta (kartRu).
- Some useful information about mAheshvara sUtras is available at
- Who inspired Panini? Reconstructing the Hindu and Buddhist counter-claims, Prof, Madhav M. Deshpande, The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Jul 1, 1997
- The author of the Pratyahara Sutras of Panini's grammar by Jayadatta Sastri, published in Gurukul Patrika no. 18, 1965
- Mahesvara Sutras by AD Sastri, published in Bulletin of Chunilal Gandhi Vidyabhavan, Surat in 1977
- Chapter 4 of 'Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali' by KMK Sharma (DLI barcode - 99999990290363)
- Pratyahara Sutron Ka Nirmata Kaun by Bhimasena Sastri published by Bhaimi Prakashan, Delhi (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/21119000)
- Economy and the Construction of the Shiva Sutras, Paul Kiparsky, Stanford University
- A Mathematical Analysis of Panini's Shivasutras, Wiebke Petersen, Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13: 471-489, 2004
- Shabda Vyutpatti Nirukta is on-line at:
Nirukta, explanation, etymological interpretation, The Nighantu and the Nirukta, the oldest Indian treatise on etymology, philology and sementics, downlodable Nirukta text at Maharshi University, encoded Nirukta text.
- Satya Sharada Kandula has presented
various topics related to ancient history, literature in her blog http://ancientindians.wordpress.com/. The nirukta or etymology is explained in details under vedanga. The sitemap shows complete set of topics covered, "all about the ancient Indians. Who they were, where they lived and what they did" information gathered from the study of literature.
- For etymology searches related to Sanskrit (Skt), see dictionaries and utilities.
- Sanskrit Flash Cards containing over 3000 basic words and their meaning organized in 300+ pages. The site also contains
English translations of plays: Bhasa's Carudatta in Poverty (daridra chaarudattam),
The Minister's Vows (pratij~naa yaugandharaayaNam),
The Vision of Vasavadatta (svapna vaasavadattam),
Harsha's Nagananda and Priyadarshika, and
Kalidasa's Shakuntala. In addition, it has
English translation of Swargarohanika Parvan in Mahabharata, and French translation
Mah??ta, Str?rva ou Livre des Femmes.
dhaatu ruupaaNi - verb tables and templates from Himanshu Pota (uses SKT)
- Sanskrit word declensions from Avinash Sathaye's
Sanskrit Goodies page
- Dr Shivamurthy Swamiji of
Sri Taralabalu Jagadguru Brihanmath, Sirigere - 577 541
Karnataka, India, has developed a software
Ganakastadhyayi for PC-Win95/98/XP (not for NT) use for broader study of Panini's Ashtadhyayi.
It includes pada-paaTha, Vrittis, and explanation.
The newer version
has the option of selecting Roman script or Devangari script. The Vrittis in Siddhanta Kaumudi and Laghu Kaumudi will also be given seperately. The data is being revised and updated. This also includes explanation on sandhi system.
Panini's Ashtadhyayi or suutrapATha is also available in Sanskrit in different formats among major works on this site sanskritdocuments.org.
- The first digital edition of the 1981 Sanskrit work
adhyAtmarAmAyaNe pANinIyaprayogAnAM vimarSha
(Deliberation on non-Paninian usages in the Adhyatma Ramayana) by Swami Ramabhadracharya of
Chitrakoot Ashram, Shri Tulsi Peeth Seva Nyas, Madhya Pradesh, India
is now available in Unicode
for reading under jagadgururambhadracharya.org.
- A selected word index to the nighaNTu and the nirukta studied and presented by Charles Wikner. The file (postscript and PDF) provides cross-index between some of the chapters, relating to synonyms, list of grammarians, technical terms, dhaatu and word index. The text is in Devanagari and Roman+diacritics. (April 2001).
Sanskrit Prosody and Numerical Symbols Explained
by Charles Phillip Brown
published in 1869 is available directly at books.google.com or can be searched on the Google books library. Login to an account is needed.
A PDF file of the Sanskrit Prosody available on the "Prosody: Texts and Studies Home Page" of the ancient-buddhist-texts.net. It also has HTML version of Pingala's ChandashAstra, vR^ittaratnAkara, shrutabodha along with Sanskrit buddhacharita.
- See a 15 minute YouTube video made by Arvind Kolhatkar
to illustrate audio recitations along with text of
several Sanskrit Vrittas at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNnUhll0zzA.
The examples are drawn from well-known Sanskrit works.
It is a home production and suffers from a
comparative lack of technical sophistication
Suggestions for improvement and change are welcome.
- View another video of Chanda/Vritta by Dr. Ramakant Shukla.
- Chanting Sanskrit verses in Gaudiya Vaishnavism by Jagadananda Das (Jagat on Granthamandira) on gaudiya.com. The file has a list of Chandas used in Bhagvatam. See also http://jagadanandadas.blogspot.com/search/label/Sanskrit.
- The Department of Classical Indology at University of Heidelberg has developed Sanskrit Metre Recognizer for Prosody/Chanda. Only varNa-vRttas are now recognized in the test version. Input method is Kyoto-Harvard. The collection of Sanskrit resources has The Panian System of Sanskrit Grammar, mukhaM vyAkaraNaM tasya that includes Complete set of Rules,
Complete set of Items, Phoneme Set, Verbal Roots, Affixes, Sigla.
- Metres in the Ramacharitamanasa, a short note on common Chandas by Nityananda Mishra may be useful for a student.
- See Chanda Prabhakar by Jagannath Prasad with details of many Chandas with mostly Hindi compositions and commentary.
- Mitweb at IIT Bombay has developed a
Meter Identifying Tool (MIT)
that identifies the meter of the given Sanskrit verse. As of now it
recognizes 503 classical Sanskrit meters. Vedic meters like gAyatrI
and uShNik and some AryA meters are in the process of being implemented.
The idea can be extended to generate audio of each if the broken letters
truncated at vowels can be grouped with individual sound bits of each.
- Learn about Sanskrit Alankara with Dr. Dhaval Patel at http://sanskritworld.in.
- Wikibooks, Sanskrit category at http://sa.wikibooks.org has grammar and other books available in Unicode format. See vyAkaraNamahAbhAShya of Patanjali, laghusiddhAntakaumudI, et cetera.
- Learn about different kalAs (in art, science, literature) from a PhD Thesis of A. Vnkatasubbiah in 1911.
The kalAs in the popular " 14 vidyA 64 kalAs" are listed in Vatsayana's Kamasutra.
However, not to get stuck with the number 64 because it was popularized through Kamasutra,
there have been reported to be lot more in numbers, referenced to Puranas, champurAmAyaNa,
bharatanATyashAstra, kAmasUtra, shritattvanidhi, shukanItisAra, tantras, and other literature. Overall, they may turn about to hundreds as proposed
in Sanskrit literature, and can be expanded with acceptable from modern world.
shrutabodha by Kalidas with Sanskrit commentary is at archive.org. The Bengali text is at DSpace at West Bengal State Central Library, downloadable in parts.
Dr. Dhananjay Vaidya has recorded examples of 40+ metres.
The rhythm of the metre is maintained (i.e., without any saragama , but maintaining the laghu-guru lengths), with pause at the yati. Audio clips are available here.
- shreevatsar's channel on YouTube includes 30 Sanskrit Metres well explained by poet and scholar Shatavadhani Dr R. Ganesh. (Read and watch about Avadhana demonstration and details.) The commentary on each is typed-up under each audio. Video is blank in these clips. The "SamskRta chandas Tutorial" presentations at padyapaana are with more technical details.
- A short musical presentation of Sanskrit metres is done by Dr. Ashwini Deo, a professor in Linguistics Department at Yale University.
- See and search nicely organized features of Sanskrit Declension and Sanskrit Word List at http://www.greenmesg.org, providing Green Message: The Evergreen Messages of Spirituality, Sanskrit and Nature.
- Many short essays on different topics are presented in Sanskrit at http://sanskritessays.blogspot.in
- The following links give additional information on Sandhi/Conjunts for Sanskrit.
- Some Simple Sanskrit stories -
- Sanskrit learning/speaking camp experience notes -
- Shri Radhikaranjan Das, a Sanskrit Teacher in Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education, Pondicherry, has written
and published two books of short Sanskrit stories, adR^ishyam and kathAH vichitrAH in simple
Sanskrit for all the ages. Read a short presentation of
these books. Write to the author Shri Radhikaranjan Das, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry, (Tamil Nadu), India 605002 Email : rr.kalidas at gmail.com or call at +91 7598494335 to place an order.
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Conversational Sanskrit (lessons and
Sanskrit Bharati, based in
Bangalore, India (Bharat) has been instrumental in promoting conversational
Sanskrit on world-wide basis. The program has been circulated through camps, publications,
correspondence courses, studies through personal contacts, and by various
means suitable to individual's needs. The following books are some of their publications.
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Bhagavadgita - A verse a day PC/DOS utility by Ajaya Durg.
- Technology Development for Indian Languages, TDIL, a program launched by Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India in 1991, has developed excellent tools related to word processing and analysis of Indian languages. The tools can be downloaded freely with simple registration from
http://tdil.mit.gov.in/. Some of
the software include
Indian Language Keyboard Driver and Fonts
iLEAP an Intelligent, Internet ready Indian language word processor on Windows
Desika: Natural Language Understanding System for Sanskrit
Shabdhabodha:to analyze the semantic and
syntactic structure of Sanskrit sentences.
Apex Language Processor (ALP) is a character mode Wordprocessor
Akshar (Word processor) for Windows
- Sivananda Org -
- Animated ShockWave of the Chakras with pronunciations of
the Biija aksharas.
- Ulrich Stiehl's sanskritweb.net has an International Phonetic IPA chart of Sanskrit alphabet pronunciations.
- A research paper The use of Sanskrit, an ancient language, as a tool to evaluate cleft palate speech problems by Kalpesh Gajiwala surprisingly in an Internatinal Journal of Plastic Surgery! "Inherent advantage of this arrangement of Sanskrit alphabets to effectively analyze defective cleft palate speech and provides a tool for surgeons to decide a course of action in their routine clinical practice."
- Sanskrit Pronunciation Audio Utilities for PC/Dos/Win -
- Guide to pronunciation of Sanskrit with International phonetic alphabet pronounciation (IPA) prepared by Yves Codet, Toulouse communicated by Sylvain Lavoie, Qu?c, Canada. (In French) Also see associated International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration.
- Sanskrit Pronunciations - BHAKTI Trust on archive org has an executable file for text and audio of all the sanskrit letters a through ha. Audio is clear. Audio is clear. Requires download and install; double click on the speaker icon. Audio is clear. The L^i pronunciation is incorrect. There are separate text and Wave audio clips that can also be used. Uninstaller is available.
- Vaisnava Online Academy (VOA) is offering an online course "Training
in Sanskrit Pronunciation" which will be useful to one and all interested
in Sanskrit. Registration for the course will be open throughout
the year. The charges are minimal. Please see further details at http://voacademy.org/courses/.
There are some videos posted on Youtube dealing with Fundamentals of Bhagvadgita, part 2 by Vidvan Gauranga Das. The pronunciation course will be similarly presented through audio/video clips and Online Bhaktivedanta Vedabase at http://vedabase.com/en .
- Sanskrit pronunciation notes from Theosophical society. Good suummary. Should expand to include a note on using nasals of the following letter group for word ending anusvaara.
- A short article on the Vedic anusvAra.
- Prof. Adheesh Sathaye has developed various Sanskrit related tools at his site
http://www.ubcsanskrit.ca with link from http://sanskrit.asianfolklore.ca.
The list includes Devanagari Script writing tutor, phonology chart, sandhI rules, lessons and exercises,
a Devanagari Qwerty keyboard utility. The utility uses minimal Alt-Shift-Cntrl strokes to represent Devanagari characters. Works on both Windows and Mac.
- Tilak Pyle's neatly arranged tilakpyle.com has several sections related to Sanskrit and Yoga. The Sanskrit pruninciation guide provides basic information such as list of alphabets, names and graphical postures/Asanas, mudras, numbers et cetera.
- Delhi Sanskrit Academy has an ebook Swayameva_Sanskrit_Shikshanam of conversational Sanskrit.
- Count integeres in Sanskrit from 1 to jyotiba 10^80000 and asaMkhya (infinity) as presented in the Wiki article History of Large Numbers. Other relevant articles are
History of Number on www.vedicsciences.net, Roman Numerals, how they work,
Very Large Numbers,
A new ancient world record number,
Index of Ancient Indian mathematics, numbers mentioned in Velmiki Ramayana 6.28.34- 6.28.43 Book VI : Yuddha Kanda - Book Of War
Chapter [Sarga] 28, and the book
"The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer,"
by Georges Ifrah (Author), David Bello pages 422-433. The author referes asankhya as incalculable poetically defined as "the sum of all the drops of wain which, in ten thousand years, would fall each day on all the worlds." The book also includes smaller fractions aNu, paramANU etc.
- Download and install a unique utility, Sanskrit-tools Toolbar for common web browsers, that adds to the collection of links for Sanskrit study. Apart from common utilities such as search engine, time of the day, current temperature and weather, email notifier, it has Sanskrit and Hindi links presented in several categories. The links include Sanskrit news, books, read/write tools, chatting utility, dictionaries, scriptures and literature, scrolling news items from BBC and other Hindi dailies, games, cricket news, stock market analysis and many tools.
- Himanshu Pota has complied various links for learning Hindi which may be useful for learning Sanskrit as well. See http://www.ee.adfa.edu.au/staff/hrp/personal/Hindi/index.html .
He also writes a blog for Learning Sanskrit at http://www.ee.adfa.edu.au/staff/hrp/personal/sanskrit/index.html.
- phalam, naivedyam cha, a blog at sva-rasa.blogspot.com, svarasA - An attempt to preserve the essence, has a long list of fruits and flowers in Sanskrit, offerred to deities as naivedyam.
- Here are some sites and blogs that are not included above and that are meant for learning Sanskrit.
- Sanskrit Bhasha Shikshanam from Rashtriya Sanskrit Pratishthan (copyright),
- Learn Sanskrit at http://agniveer.com,
- Sri Sathya Sai Veda Pratishthan, vedamu.org,
- sa.nskR^ita svayaM shikShakaH by Mandar Joglekar at http://www.joglekar.com/joglekarfamily/Sanskrit/Sanskrit.asp
- Learn Sanskrit on iPhones, application from http://sparshapps.com/ along with Bhagvadgita and Vishnu Sahasranama.
- How to learn Sanskrit chanting, interviews with S. S. Prathap, Chennai.
- Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA presented by Shri Shripad L. Abhyankar. He also maintains SaMskRutaadhyayanam and Sanskrit for Marathi Manoos.
- Sanskritvani, Sanskrit Aggregator at http://sanskritcentral.com/.
- http://sanskritpearls.blogspot.com/. In addition, https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com had new series on study of Sanskrit grammar starting with Patanjali's Maheshwara - shiva sUtras.
- Android and iPhone Applications (Apps) for learning Sanskrit.
The attempt is to provide free and
no tie-up advertisement for Pro or Premier paid applications.
- Search for Sanskrit on Android applications.
- Sanskrit Primer, Android App developed by Krishna Varma. "This app aims to not only provide a teach yourself type guide to basic Sanskrit but also serve as a handy pocket reference. " Includes "Complete Dhatupatha (~2000 verbal roots)", "Over 100 simple conversational sentences," "Extensive listing of verb and noun inflection tables and vocabulary ." Krishna has also developed App for Vishnu Sahasranama stotra.
: Vibhakti Pratyaya, Android App developed by "Sameer Kumar
Kaushik Mamillapalli . "ViPra
is a reference guide to Vibhakti-Pratyayas which are basics
of Sanskrit grammar. Vibhakti-Pratyayas deal with different
declination of words. ViPra helps you create a table of declination
for a selected word. This app uses Devanagari script to render
tables." Also, Kaushik has added a new application (Nov. 2015) titled Subanta
Sikshika that quizes you on vibhakti pratyas. It is avaialable on Google
Play Store. Kaushik is soliciting feedback to improve the App.
Samvada Sudha, Sanskrit conversation,
Android App developed by Kaizad Avari.
Stories, an Android App developed by K. J. Somaiya Bharatiya Sanskriti
Peetham under the category Comics. "This app consists of fables in Sanskrit
language with their English translation. Recommended for anyone who has
started with Sanskrit and wish to increase his command over the language."
- Sanskrit Subhashitmala, an Android App developed by Andoidzen. It also has Marathi Mhani, Marathi Palindromes (vilomapade), and Maxims (kahAvat, muhAnvare, samethalu, gadegalum ukhan etc) in other languages.
- Learn Sanskrit Easy, an Android App developed by Thadaladi.
"Learn Sanskrit App contains a long list of Sanskrit words,
fill in the blanks and multiple choice questions and answers, and
enabled with super zoom to read clearly."
- Sanskrit_deepika, an Android App developed by Dr. Suresh V. Ranade. Dr. Ranade and Mrs. Shubhangi Ranade have pioneered
sevral projects through Dnyandeep Foundation. See ????????????? .
- Ashlesha Apps,
a collection of Android Apps for Marathi and Hindi texts.
Although claimed to be including Sanskrit text links, it is but a guess
where the texts will be coming from when the section is added as it sounds like
a repackaged site.
- English Sanskrit Dictionary,
an Android App developed by vdru, Russian author, among many language and
astrology related applications. See
English Marathi dictionary, and other languages.
- Geervaani, an Android App developed by Mahalakshmi Prasanna. "Geervani is a simple, handy, reference tool that helps to converse in Sanskrit. It provides a look-up of Sanskrit translations for commonly used sentences. The sentences are organized under categories for easy access.
There is a word-search view using which you can find Sanskrit words for commonly used English words." It appears to be Sanskrit Sahasri by Samskrit Bharati booklet.
- https://sourceforge.net/projects/sanskriti/ has developed "Sanskrit to English Dictionary Android application." Damodarreddy Challa has also developed janapadam, a Telugu English dictioanry.
- An Apple iOS App titled "Amaram - Sanskrit Reference - Nouns, Verbs (Dhatus)" that allows searching all Dhatus, verbs, nouns, words in sanskrit and also provides all lakara forms of those Dhatus (verbs). It is developed by Ashok Raja CM and is available at Itune link for Amaram.