Online Sanskrit Dictionaries and utilities

The dictionary/glossary file developed on this site many years ago was an attempt in providing help to students of Sanskrit when such information was unavailable online. The files are still available here in Postscript / PDF / XDVNG / ITX / Text/ Unicode formats. (The unicode file is presented also in input-output slate format at Sanskrit-Anglabhasha Shabdakosh.) A separate set of files was created only for numbers used in Sanskrit. Please see learning tools' section.

The above file is further extended at http://www.srimadbhagavatam.org/downloads/SanskritDictionary.html with definitions of the Monier-Williams dictionary (indicated with an *=) and the ISKCON Vedabase (marked*V) and (partly) adapted to the transliteration used at srimadbhagavatam.org (see also mwreport.html).

The following list, and links 1, 2, and 3 indicate evidence of the tremendous development that has taken place in online utilities for Sanskrit learning.

  • Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon contains searchable access to the Monier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, with selectable items for Capellars Sanskrit Dictionary, Tamil and Pahlavi dictionaries. Both searches with Sanskrit/Tamil/Pahlavi and English words are allowed. An improved version of the search for just Sanskrit words for English meaning is available at Monier Williams Online Sanskrit English Dictionary which allows Sanskrit word input in Kyoto, SLP1, and Itrans transliterations, and output in Devanagari Unicode, Harvard-Kyoto, ITRANS, Roman Unicode, Roman CSX, Roman Manjushree CSX formats. An advanced search covers Sanskrit and English word searches with maximum of "All" word displays in different formats.

    Other digitized editions and scanned images of Sanskrit-English/German dictionaries are available at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries. The web page provides Sanskrit lexicons prepared by the Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies, Cologne University. The advanced M-W site feature gives the declension of the stem, or gives the stem and declension if you input the inflected stem. The Monier William's dictionary in HTML text format is prepared by Richard Mahoney.

    Jim Funderburk has prepared a video tutorial, "describing installation of local version of Monier-Williams English-Sanskrit Dictionary from Cologne Sanskrit-Lexicon. Also describes installation of Server2go for the Windows OS." See other uploads by him.

  • Here is a list of abbreviations and symbols used in Monier Williams Sanskrit English dictionary.
  • Word list from Monier William's Sanskrit dictionary, shabda sa.ngraha : ITX | PS | PDF | UNICODE |
  • Ajit Krishnan's Mudgala kosha, a searchable compilation of various dictionaries including Monier William's and Apte's dictionaries with additional grammar utilities will be an excellent addition to your Sanskrit learning. Explore the site of various scanned books and software including mobile applications for Sanskrit dictionaries. The Apps are kept at http://www.aupasana.com/stardict, along with installation instructions.
  • SanDic - Sanskrit-English Dictionary prepared by Artem Novikov. novikovag at gmail.com. The electronic version is based on three dictionaries:
    • Apte Vaman Shivaram (Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary)
    • Macdonell (A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout)
    • Monier Williams (Sanskrit-English Dictionary).
    All files for the dictionary are available at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/sandic/files

    Dhatu-Patha - Sanskrit-English Dictionary, a Collection of verbal roots with final forms. Compiled by Mandala Pati dasa (Petrovsky Vladislav). mandala.pati at gmail.com.
    Devanagari and English search is available through whole data-base.
    All files for downloading (esp. "sandic.db") are available at:
    http://sourceforge.net/projects/dhatu-patha/files
    The dictionary is based on:

    • Dhatu-sangraha of Srila Jiva Gosvami.
    • Sri Hari-namamrita-vyakarana of Srila Jiva Gosvami with Samshodhini-Tika of Matsya-avatara dasa.
    • Brihaddhatukusumakarah Pt. Harekanta Mishra
    • Dhatu-ratnakara of Muni Sri Lavanya Vijaya Suri.
    • Rupa-chandrika. Edited by Dr. Brahmananda Tripathi. Published by Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashan, Varanasi.

    Halayudha Kosha is a Sanskrit to Sanskrit dictionary.

    Ajit Krishnan has developed a mobile applications using these dictionaries. The Apps are kept at http://www.aupasana.com/stardict, along with installation instructions.

    Monier William's and Apte dictionary for Mac OS compiled by Dr. Pankaj Dubey : Download the three Zip files

    "Files need to be unzipped and pasted in the Mac OS's Library->Dictionary folder.Dictionary files taken from Ajit Krishnan's website http://www.aupasana.com/software and converted in Mac Os format with Dictunifier 2.1. The search with Devanagari script is not working; Sanskrit word would need to be searched with Diacritics or IPA convention. In Mac OS Dictionary App, go to "Preferences" and enable the dictionaries". For any questions, write to Pankaj at dr.pankaj.dubey [at]] gmail dot com .
  • Sanskrit Kosha SamucchayaH : A searchable Online Sanskrit Dictionary with drop down word selection. The database includes word meanings from following dictionaries selectable :
    • Sanskrit to English Dictionaries
      • A Dictionary in Sanscrit and English : H. H. Wilson (2nd Ed., 1832)
      • A Dictionary in Sanscrit and English : Rev. W. Yates (1846)
      • A Sanskrit - English Dictionary : Theodore Benfey (1866)
      • The Standard Sanskrit-English Dictionary : Lakshman Ramchandra Vaidya (1889)
      • A Sanskrit - English Dictionary : Carl Cappeller (1891)
      • Sanskrit-English Dictionary : Sir M. Monier Williams (2nd Ed., 1899)
      • The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary : Vaman Shivram Apte (2nd Ed., 1912)
      • A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary : Arthur Anthony MacDonell (1924)
    • Sanskrit to Sanskrit Dictionaries
      • (Sabdakalpadrum : Sri Raja Radha Kanta Deva) (3rd Ed., 1967)
      • (Vachaspatyam : Sri Taranatha Tarkavachaspati) (1962)
    • English to Sanskrit Dictionaries
      • Dictionary, English and Sanskrit : Sir M. Monier Williams (1851)
      • English - Sanskrit Dictionary : Anundoram Borooah (1877)
      • The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary : Vaman Shivram Apte (3rd Ed. 1920)
      The utility provides input maps for various transliteration, ITRANS, RTS, SLP1, Kyoto, Velthuis, WX, Indic Unicode.
      Contact seshavadapalli at yahoo.com and knbrao at yahoo.com for additional information.
  • Louis Bontes' PC-based dictionary utility for Monier William's digitized dictionary at Cologne is available at http://members.ams.chello.nl/l.bontes/.
  • Michael Bunk's Monier William's utility is at http://dict.uni-leipzig.de/dictd as an alternative to Cologne version. .
  • The scanned images of entire Monier Williams Sanskrit English dictionary are available at Sripedia MW as a part of Million Books Project. Contact S. Sriram for more details on the Sripedia project and if you would like to volunteer for proofreading other documents. Also read to hearts' content the scanned Sanskrit books at Sanskrit section. Download of large files are required.
  • A PDF version of the dictionary scanned at Sripedia MW is made available in two parts of 105MB each.
  • Digital Dictionaries of South Asia project at University of Chicago plans to include four searchable Sanskrit Dictionaries. The dictionary by Arthur Anthony Macdonell, A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout is available.
    At sanskritvoice.com, Seshu Karthik Tanveer has developed a searchable widget, and a facebook application for the dictionary. As on the original site, it allows lookup for a Sanskrit phrase, or a reverse-lookup of an English word.
  • For etymology searches related to Sanskrit (Skt), visit etymonline.com, Wikipedia entry on Etymology with Sanskrit category and links, Nirukta, explanation, etymological interpretation, The Nighantu and the Nirukta, the oldest Indian treatise on etymology, philology and sementics, a list_of_English_words_of_Sanskrit_origin, Word Origins, downlodable Nirukta text at Maharshi University, encoded Nirukta text by Tokunaga available at Gretil, Indo-European etymological dictionary.
  • Chetan Pandey has developed a Sanskrit-English dictionary utility at www.sktUtils.com. It also contains a Transliterator - including Conversion Via Files Upload - Sandhi Engine, Pratyahara Decoder and Metric Analyzer.
  • There is an effort in "wikifying" the dictionaries and consolidating dictionary links at sa.wiktionary.org/wiki/. The initial collection is taken from Sanskrit Documents site, the unicode file provided above "dictionary/glossary file." The links are nicely categorized as : Sanskrit dictionaries, yoga glossary, Ayurveda dictionary, Grammar (vyAkaraNa), dictionary, Logic (tarka) dictionaries, self introspection (Atmachintanasya) related words, Dhatupatha (Panini) dictionary, Sanskrit-French glossary, Collection of Sanskrit sentences (saralasa.nskR^itavAkya kosha), Sankhyakarika shabdakosha et cetera. The problem exists with such "collective" efforts : Who will maintain the quality while "copy-pasting" the files, books, and (missing) links from difference sources? See for example "AyurvedIya sa.nskR^itshabdakosha."
  • Apte Sanskrit to English online searchable Dictionary is based on ``The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary'' of Vaman Shivaram Apte. An improved English to Sanskrit dictionary is available at Cologne.
  • Monier Williams dictionary is also available on a CD at sudarshana.org at a nominal cost or advertised as Free at krishna.com.

    This is a facsimile edition of the dictionary. Its tabbed interface allows access to multiple pages. The dictionary is searchable, using Harvard-Kyoto encoding. The dictionary CD is published as freeware by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. The Trust offers it from their site, Krishna.com, for $2.95 (to cover the cost of handling). A new set of fonts to enable the dictionary's search feature to work under Windows Vista is available (at no cost) here: http://www.jswami.info/Monier_Williams_Sanskrit_Dictionary_for_Vista.

    A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar by Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and J. M. Shukla, 1986 edition. (on ScribD).

  • Dr. Kalyanraman's Lexicon of Indian Languages (Indo-European and Dravidian)
  • Andre Signoret's French-Sanskrit dictionary. File to be downloaded: fraskt00.exe
  • Shrikant Jamadagni's compilation English-Sanskrit Dictionary for computer software/hardware related terminologies with meaning, context, and sentence structure.
  • Gérard Huet's Sanskrit-French dictionary with on-line grammar. ( Email) Devanagari and roman script. Read an annouuncement by Gerard for a summary.
  • INDDICT A Sanskrit English dictionary, available at http://www.sanskritreader.de/ . with features "User can look up Sanskrit words (in diacritical form) or meanings. Entries can be edited. Update function to publish edited/new words and meanings. Full access to the database. Statistical details about the distribution of words in a (limited) text corpus."
  • Klaus Glashoff has initiated a new online hypertext dictionary at http://spokensanskrit.de that allows user input in style of Wikipedia entries. Many phrases for conversational use are included. One can navigate from one word to the other by clicking on it. The display is in Unicode Devanagari as well as in transliteration format.
  • Yashwant Malaiya's search interface for some of these dictionaries.
  • A scanned Sanskrit German dictionary 1888 by Delbruck (PDF 30+Mb) and its OCR copy (MSWord 8+Mb)) is available upon request. Please send a note to sanskrit@cheerful.com for its access.

  • Amarakosha or nAmali.ngAnushAsanaM, a Sanskrit thesaurus is available here. If you want to participate creating a dictionary from the text, please write to us.
  • For an archive of Sanskrit dictionaries, readers and grammars in German, English and Russian join the newsgroup http://groups.google.com/group/Nagari (circa 4000 Mb Book Scans, devanagari fonts) Also, download free devanagari fonts and transliteration convert macros, OCR, http://nagari.southindia.ru (history and hi-res scans of Indian typography)

  • DCS Digital Corpus of Sanskrit at http://kjc-fs-cluster.kjc.uni-heidelberg.de/dcs/ at University of Heidelberg, with help details is a searchable collection of lemmatized Sanskrit texts.
  • A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality, Scholar's Terms prepared by Octavian Sarbatoare.
  • Sanskrit-Pashto dictionary .
  • A list of Sanskrit dictionary related links is compiled at multilingualbooks.com.
  • A Sanskrit English dictionary by Lakshman Ramchandra Vaidya (885 pages) is available among google PDF books.
  • Dnyanadeep Education and Research Foundation's Sanskritdepika at http://www.sanskritdeepika.org has a catalog/glossary of English-Sanskrit-Marathi words with coordinated meanings. It also has extensive tools and information to learn Sanskrit.

Dictionares in Hindi/Marathi/Gujarati and other Indian languages

  • Wikipedia Hindi Glossaries cover many words in different categories.
  • Governemnt of India and State Governments have published multivolume dictionaries with equivalent words for civil services. Please send any additional information about this collection.
  • An English-Hindi dictionary by Acharya Raghuveera is among the project "The Great English-Indian dictionary" in 1950s. They contain Sanskrit words for technical and scientific vocabulary for several disciplines.
  • Other related dictionaries (Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati etc) are available at shabdanjali at shabdakosh.com and Hindi section. For details on these dictionaries (copyright, availability, updates, contacts, permission to use etc), please see the Hindi Dictionary Readme file.
  • The BharatiyaBhasha multilingual dictionary consisting of nearly 5000 common words in 14 different languages is available for download. There are quite a few tools developed at Technology Development for Indian Languages.
  • Shabdika shabdakosha, English-Hindi dictionary at TDIL, Technology Development for Indian Languages along with other language software tools.
  • A "Hindi Vishva Kosh," a Hindi pictorial encyclopaedia is in planning at http://tdil.mit.gov.in/ongoing_proj.html. It is sponsored by Government of India. Contact TDIL for more information.
  • marathibhasha.com hosts several glossaries/dictionaries in Marathi/Hindi for English words as a glossary of technical terms (pAribhAShika shabdArtha sUchI) in several scientitfic and office categories. Must see the categories to get the details. A search engine with entries in English or Marathi/Hindi Devanagari is provided. It is a free tool available without any restricttions. This is part of collection of marathiwebsites.com/.
  • Archive.org has various Hindi dictionaries available for download. Search iwht words Hindi kosha Hindustani Hindoostanee et cetera.
  • Resource Center For Indian Language Technology Solution (CCFILT, IIT Mumbai) has a unique online Hindi and Marathi shAbdabandha, a searchable Hindi and Marathi - English dictionary, in fact more than a conventional dictionary. "It gives different relations between synsets or synonym sets which represent unique concepts."
  • The Aryabhusan school Marathi-English online dictionary, digitized at University of Chicago online collection, originally (1911) written by Shridhar Ganesh Vaze.
  • Another Marathi English Dictionary, available online at University of Chicago web site is Molesworth's digitized Marathi-English dictionary.
  • A webinterface to Hindi and Marathi dictionaries is available. There are other utilities developed as a part of Resource Center for Indian Language Technology Solutions at Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (Mumbai). The searchable utilities include tutorials, wordnet group, most frequent words in Indian languages, Devanagari keyboard, Marathi and Hindi Corpora (try the word kushala) et cetera. The site is reviewed at Desh Dunia blogspot in Hindi.
  • The shabdkosh.com has on-screen inscript and romanized keyboard utility to enter Hindi text for a simple English-Hindi dictionary. The Hindi words and translations are clickable and display synonyms.
  • The http://en.bab.la/dictionary/english-hindi/ has an Hindi-English/English-Hindi dictionary which includes context sentences, idioms and useful phrases for learning Hindi. There are language quizzes and games available for learning hindi as a fun way to practice and improve vocabulary.
  • Report on the Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon Project
  • Digital Dictionaries of South Asia of University of Chicago has links and searchable contents of following languages: Baluchi, Khowar, Persian, Torwali, Bengali, Mar athi, Rajasthani, Urdu, Nepali, Sanskrit, Comparative, Hindi, Pali, Tamil, Kashmiri, Pashto, Telugu et cetera. Many more are forthcoming. These dictionaries are entered by contractors and the work to create searchable database is ongoing. The project is funded by the "International Research and Studies Program within the Office of International Education and Graduate Programs at the US Department of Education. The online versions of the four Sanskrit dictionaries were created for the DDSA as a project of the former Dharam Hinduja Indic Research Center of Columbia University under the generous sponsorship of the Hinduja Foundation. "
  • Gujarati Lexicon at http://www.gujaratilexicon.com/ has excellent contents and interface for the Gujarati/Gujarati/English dictionary.
  • Urdu-Devanagari transliterated word list.
  • Bharatabhasha_Common dictionary of 14 Indian languages, a zipped Excel spreadsheet.
  • Zdenek Broz dicts(at)centrum.cz of http://www.dicts.info has developed a data base information/dictionaries for various world wide languages. The project includes following Indian languages : Hindi, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Sinhala.
    The interfaces are organized in interconnecting manner with many world languages. Explore the categories : Universal dictionary, English dictionary, Basic vocabulary, Picture dictionary, English thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Bilingual dictionaries, Examples of use, Specialty resources, Mobile phones and PDAs applications, Downloadable dictionaries, Offline Dictionary applications, Topical dictionary, Terminology, Vocabulary trainer, Standard Phrases.
  • The site http://khandbahale.com by Sunil Khandbahale has a set of dictionaries for various Indian languages, specifically English to Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malyalam, Punjabi, Bengali, and Sanskrit, and reversed format. In addition to online searching, it has plugins for online webrowser searches (e.g if you are reading a newspaper or so and want to find a meaning of the word), applications for mobiles/handhelds, and smart phones. As a commercial tilt to the project, the downlodable files for dictionaries with Basic, Advance, and Advance with audio options are available at price. See the sitemap.
  • Tamilcube.com has a multilingual dictionaries in various languages. Among them is the search utility for English-Sanskrit and Sanskrit-English vocabulary words and translations. This is a comprehensive link websites for different resources such as Dictionaries, Translators, Exams/Aptitude tests, Ebooks, Astrology et cetera.

The files on Sanskrit Documents site are prepared by volunteers over many years and are meant to be used for personal study and research. They are not to be copied or reposted for promotion of any website or individuals or for commercial purpose without permission.

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For additional links to articles and activities online, visit http://sanskritlinks.blogspot.com.

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